In Ghari different words are used for a husband divorcing a wife and a wife divorcing a husband. (Source: David Clark)

In Mairasi the term that is used means “discard.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

complete verse (Mark 10:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 10:4:

  • Uma: “The Parisi people answered: ‘Musa allowed a man to divorce his wife, as long as he first makes a divorce letter.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “They said, ‘Musa allowed a man to sign (pilma) a letter of divorce, then he can divorce his wife.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And they answered, ‘Moses allowed a man to divorce his wife but it was necessary that that man give his wife a notice of his divorcing her.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Moses allowed a man to give his wife a writing that confirmed that they had divorced, then he would make-her-leave,’ they said answering.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “They said, ‘Well, Moises did indeed permit a man to divorce his wife, provided there is a writing which is the sign that they are now divorced.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The name that is transliterated as “Moses” in English is signed in Spanish Sign Language in accordance with the depiction of Moses in the famous statue by Michelangelo (see here). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)

“Moses” in Spanish Sign Language (source)

Another depiction in Spanish Sign Language (source: Carlos Moreno Sastre):

The horns that are visible in Michelangelo’s statue are based on a passage in the Latin Vulgate translation (and many Catholic Bible translations that were translated through the 1950ies with that version as the source text). Jerome, the translator, had worked from a Hebrew text without the niqquds, the diacritical marks that signify the vowels in Hebrew and had interpreted the term קרו (k-r-n) in Exodus 34:29 as קֶ֫רֶן — keren “horned,” rather than קָרַו — karan “radiance” (describing the radiance of Moses’ head as he descends from Mount Sinai).

Even at the time of his translation, Jerome likely was not the only one making that decision as this recent article alludes to.