The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches. (Source: Gerrit van Steenbergen)

Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).

In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and two above (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also cross.

complete verse (Luke 23:23)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 23:23:

  • Uma: “But they just all-the-harder asked that Yesus be crucified. Finally they really won.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But they really insisted and continued to shout that Isa should be nailed to the post. Finally their wish was followed.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then they shouted all the more that Jesus be nailed to a cross, and after a long while, Pilate could no longer resist,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But they continued shouting insisting that Jesus be nailed to the cross until Pilato was defeated,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But those people were noisy-and-excited. They were insistent that it really was necessary to nail Jesus to a cross. Well, since it was now like that, they won.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)