comfort, encourage

The Greek that is translated in English as “encourage” or “comfort” is translated in Enlhet as “become calm of the innermost.” “Innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions or states of mind (for other examples see here). (Source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff.)

In Bacama it is translated as “(to) cool stomach” (source: David Frank in this blog post), in Yatzachi Zapotec as “cause hearts to mature,” and in Isthmus Zapotec “hearts may lie quiet” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

See also Seat of the Mind / Seat of Emotions and encourage.

zeal, zealous

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated in English as “zeal” or “zealous” is translated in Moken as “great love” (“my zeal” — cewui lak tho: “my great love.”) (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is likewise translated as “love, commitment, enthusiasm” (not jealousy). (Source: Robert Bascom)

In Khasi is is translated with shitrhem which conveys the “idea of loving or devoted enthusiasm.” (Source: B. J. Syiemlieh)

complete verse (2 Corinthians 7:7)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 7:7:

  • Uma: “Our(excl.) hearts became strong again seeing Titus arrive. And more than that, we (excl.) were happy to hear the news that he brought from you. He said how you comforted his heart while he was with you. He also said that you missed/longed-for me wanting to meet with me. He said that your hearts were sorry. He also said that you wanted to make-up with us (excl.) with your whole hearts. Hearing that, we (excl.) were even more happy.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Not just his coming made us (excl.) glad, but also what he told us (excl.). He said that his liver was really encouraged because of you. He also said that you really want to see me. Great is your regretting about what happened to you and he says you are happy to defend me/take my side. Therefore I am now really much more glad.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it was not only the arrival of Titus that made us happy, but also the news he brought that he was very happy about you. He told us that you really want for me to visit there. He told us also that you were asking forgiveness from me. And he also told us that you are anxious to do what I want, and because of this, my joy increased.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And it wasn’t only his coming that strengthened our (excl.) minds, but even moreover what he reported concerning your making-him -happy. Because he said that you reportedly greatly-desire to see me and reportedly extreme is your repentance/regret on account of the evil that you did previously. He also said that you are reportedly already eager to act-in-my -interest and defend me, so I was even-more made-happy.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And it wasn’t just the arrival of Tito that comforted us (excl.), but rather also the news-he -told us as to how his mind/inner-being was happy because of you. For he related how you are-eagerly-awaiting-my -arrival. He also related that you are very grieved about the things you did which were not good that I set-(you) -straight-about, and how you are now standing up for me to those there who are belittling me. Therefore after I heard that news, I was very happy.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Not only did I rejoice when I saw Titus again, but also I rejoiced the more when he told me that you very much paid attention to him while he was there with you. Because Titus is very happy about you. And he told me that you were sad because of how you heart my heart. He told me that you very much remember me. Upon hearing this word I overflowingly rejoiced.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (2Cor. 7:7)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the addressee).

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.