form of address between the persons of the Trinity

In Hindi a differentiation is made between the way that the different persons of the Trinity are addressed by a regular person or by another person of the Trinity. When Jesus addresses God the Father or when God the Father addresses Jesus, a familiar form of address is used, unlike the way that any of them would be addressed with a honorific (pl.) form by anyone else.

Source: C.S. Thoburn in The Bible Translator 1963, p. 180ff.


The Greek and Hebrew that is translated with “joy” or “gladness” in English is translated with various associations of “sweetness” or taste: Bambara has “the spirit is made sweet,” Kpelle translates as “sweet heart,” and Tzeltal as “the good taste of one’s heart,” Uduk uses the phrase “good to the stomach,” Baoulé “a song in the stomach,” Mískito “the liver is wide open” (“happily letting the pleasures flooding in upon it”) (source: Nida 1952), Mairasi says “good liver” (source: Enggavoter 2004), Nyongar has koort-kwabba-djil or “heart very good” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), and Chicahuaxtla Triqui “refreshed heart” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

See also Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling” and exceeding joy.

complete verse (John 17:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 17:13:

  • Uma: “‘Now, I am about to come [to where you are], Father. All this I say while I am still with them in this world, so that their joy will really be complete with joy that is from me.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “I will soon return to you, therefore while I am still in this world I say this so that their joy is complete like my joy.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And now I am returning there to you, and I beseech this of you while I am still here on the earth so that they may be thoroughly caused to rejoice with my joy. That word of yours you had me teach, I taught to them, and the people here on the earth who are your enemies are against them also because they have no association with these just like I also have no association with your enemies.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘My returning to you (sing.) is near-in-time, but I am still on this earth. Therefore I pray this out loud (lit. strongly) in order that they will hear in order that they will be made-thoroughly -happy with my own happiness.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But today/now, I am about to come home now to you, and I am telling these things already while I am still here in this world so that the big-size of my happiness may be theirs with no lack.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Now I am going where you are. But while I still am here in the world, I speak this word so that our people will have all joy just like I rejoice.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)