brother (fellow Christian)

The Greek that is translated in English as “brother” (in the sense of a fellow Christian) is translated with a specifically coined word in Kachin: “There are two terms for brother in Kachin. One is used to refer to a Christian brother. This term combines ‘older and younger brother.’ The other term is used specifically for addressing siblings. When one uses this term, one must specify if the older or younger person is involved. A parallel system exists for ‘sister’ as well. In [these verses], the term for ‘a Christian brother’ is used.” (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Martu Wangka it is translated as “relative” (this is also the term that is used for “follower”.) (Source: Carl Gross)

See also brothers.

complete verse (Romans 7:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 7:1:

  • Uma: “Relatives, you do know the laws of governing-ones/government. So certainly you know what I say here: we men [mankind] live under the power of laws of governing-ones while we still live. But if we die, the laws have no more power over us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “My brothers who believe in Isa Almasi, it is certain you (plural) understand what I am going to say because you know the law. The law has authority/right hep over a person as long as that person is alive.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Brothers, we (incl.) now understand what the government law is and we know that we (incl.) are under the commands of that law until we die. But when we die it is no longer possible to have us carry out the commands of the Law.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “You who are my brothers, I know you will understand this that I will say, because you all understand about law. You know then that the law has authority over a person only while he is living.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Listen my brothers, you know that concerning the law there is, it has authority to rule the person while he lives. But when the person dies, then the law no longer rules him.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)