demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Matthew 8:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 8:16:

  • Uma: “That afternoon, many people came to Yesus, carrying their friends or relatives who were sick, or who were possessed [ridden] by demons. Yesus caused-to-go-out those demons with just one of his words, and he healed all the people who were sick.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When the sun had set the people brought many people possessed by demons to Isa. He drove the demons out just through his command. And he healed all the sick people.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And that afternoon many people came to visit Jesus bringing with them many who were afflicted with demons. And Jesus treated them by only speaking, and they were cured. And he also treated all who were sick and they got well.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When the sun had set (lit. gone-out-of-sight), the inhabitants brought to Jesus many who were possessed by evil-spirits and who were sick. And he caused-the evil-spirits -to-leave with his word only while-simultaneously he also healed all who were sick.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “At sunset, many were brought to Jesus who were possessed by evil spirits. Jesus drove out all those evil spirits. And as for those brought to him who were sick, he healed them all.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When it was evening, there where Jesus was many people who walked with evil spirits were brought for him to heal them. But Jesus only had to say that the people with evil spirits would be healed and at once they were. All the different kinds of sickness were suffered by the people, but he healed all of them” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)