demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Mark 1:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:34:

  • Uma: “There were many people whom he healed of their many kinds of sicknesses. Also many demons that were possessing people he expelled. But he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew that he was the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Many people who had all kinds of sickness were healed by Isa and also many demons were cast-out (lit. caused-to-get-out) by him. He commanded the demons not to speak for they really knew as to who Isa was.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus healed many who were sick with many kinds of diseases. There were also many demons he caused to go away from people. And those demons, Jesus would not allow them to speak, because they knew who Jesus really was.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And he healed the many who were sick of many-kinds of sicknesses. He also caused-the many evil-spirits -to-leave while-simultaneously making-them-be-quiet, because they knew who he was.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Many who were sick were healed by Jesus, no matter what kind of illness they were asking help for. Many also were the evil spirits he drove out. He did not allow the evil spirits to speak because they were well-aware of who he really was.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then he arranged many sick ones, those with mixed sicknesses. Thereupon he expelled many demons. He did not permit the demons to speak, since they knew him.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “Many were healed by Him. who were ill by various sicknesses, moreover many demons were expelled. and they were not allowed to speak. because they knew Him already.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )