You shall not murder / kill

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “You shall not kill/murder” or similar in English is translated in Una as Ninyi ona mem: “Don’t kill people” because in Una an object needed to be added. (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 407)

complete verse (James 2:11)

Following are a number of back-translations of James 2:11:

  • Uma: “For there is a command of the Lord that says: ‘Don’t commit-adultery.’ And there is another command of his that says: ‘Don’t kill.’ So, even though we don’t commit-adultery, but if we do murder, we are still breaking the Lord’s Law.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “For God says in his law, ‘Don’t commit adultery’ and he also says, ‘Do not kill.’ Even if you don’t commit adultery but if you kill you have just the same broken the law of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “For the one who said, ‘Do not commit adultery against your spouse,’ he is also the one who said, ‘Do not murder.’ And even though you have not committed adultery against your spouse, if you have murdered, you have transgressed the whole Law, for the one who commanded all those laws is only one.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because the God who commanded, ‘Don’t (singular) commit-adultery,’ he also commanded, ‘Don’t (singular) murder.’ So for-example, if you (plural) have managed not to commit-adultery-with-women or commit-adultery-with-men but you have murdered one of your fellows, you have nevertheless already-broken the law.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “For example, God commanded saying, ‘Do not behave-immorally with one not your (sing.) spouse.’ And he too is the one who commanded, ‘Do not kill your (sing.) fellowman.’ Well, you (sing.) truly aren’t behaving-immorally, but supposing you (sing.) kill someone, of course you (sing.) are now a sinner, for you (sing.) have indeed broken the law.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “God himself said: ‘Do not commit adultery.’ And again he said, ‘Do not kill people.’ Then if a person does not commit adultery but kills, then he rejects what is said in the law.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)