sin revived

The Greek that is often translated into English as “sin revived” is translated into Bilua as “sin permeated my life.”

See also sin.


The Hebrew and Greek that is typically translated as “sin” in English has a wide variety of translations.

The Greek ἁμαρτάνω (hamartanō) carries the original verbatim meaning of “miss the mark.” Likewise, many translations contain the “connotation of moral responsibility.” Loma has (for certain types of sin) “leaving the road” (which “implies a definite standard, the transgression of which is sin”) or Navajo uses “that which is off to the side.” (Source: Bratcher / Nida). In Toraja-Sa’dan the translation is kasalan, which originally meant “transgression of a religious or moral rule” and has shifted its meaning in the context of the Bible to “transgression of God’s commandments.” (Source: H. van der Veen in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 21 ff.).

In Shipibo-Conibo the term is hocha. Nida (1952, p. 149) tells the story of its choosing:

“In some instances a native expression for sin includes many connotations, and its full meaning must be completely understood before one ever attempts to use it. This was true, for example, of the term hocha first proposed by Shipibo-Conibo natives as an equivalent for ‘sin.’ The term seemed quite all right until one day the translator heard a girl say after having broken a little pottery jar that she was guilty of ‘hocha.’ Breaking such a little jar scarcely seemed to be sin. However, the Shipibos insisted that hocha was really sin, and they explained more fully the meaning of the word. It could be used of breaking a jar, but only if the jar belonged to someone else. Hocha was nothing more nor less than destroying the possessions of another, but the meaning did not stop with purely material possessions. In their belief God owns the world and all that is in it. Anyone who destroys the work and plan of God is guilty of hocha. Hence the murderer is of all men most guilty of hocha, for he has destroyed God’s most important possession in the world, namely, man. Any destructive and malevolent spirit is hocha, for it is antagonistic and harmful to God’s creation. Rather than being a feeble word for some accidental event, this word for sin turned out to be exceedingly rich in meaning and laid a foundation for the full presentation of the redemptive act of God.”

In Kaingang, the translation is “break God’s word” and in Sandawe the original meaning of the Greek term (see above) is perfectly reflected with “miss the mark.” (Source: Ursula Wiesemann in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 36ff., 43)

See also sinner.

complete verse (Romans 7:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 7:9:

  • Uma: “Formerly before I know the Lord’s Law, I thought my life was good. But in fact, when I heard the Lord’s Law, the sin that was in my heart appeared/showed-up,” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “At the time when I did not yet know the law, I thought-mistakenly that I was good and I had no sin. But after I knew the law I understood that I am sinful, surprise, and my sin increased,” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “At first I did not know what the Law was, and at that time it seemed as if I had no sin. But when the Law was taught to me, I understood then that my actions were evil, and because of this I understood that apparently I was going to wind up with death without end.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Previously, I was satisfied with my way-of-life (i.e. behavior), because admittedly I didn’t properly understand what the law was talking-about. But when I understood what it meant to say, it was as if my hereditary sinfulness woke-up” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Concerning myself, when I didn’t know what was said in God’s law I then thought I was doing good. But when I came to know what is said in the law I understood that I was not doing what was said in God’s law. I then knew that it was necessary that I be punished for my sin.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)