ask / inquire (Japanese honorifics)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way to do this is through the usage (or a lack) of an honorific prefix as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “ask” in English is translated in the Shinkaiyaku Bible as o-tazune (お尋ね), combining “inquire” (tazune) with the respectful prefix o-.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

See also ask / request (Japanese honorifics) and humble form of “ask” (ukagau).

He gave freedom to those in bondage of evil (image)

“In Thai society, those who are possessed by evil spirits are usually the weak or mentally unstable. This man is shown as freed from his spiritual and physical chains. Even though he is naked Jesus is not ashamed to be close to him.”

Drawing by Sawai Chinnawong who employs northern and central Thailand’s popular distinctive artistic style originally used to depict Buddhist moral principles and other religious themes; explanation by Paul DeNeui. From That Man Who Came to Save Us by Sawai Chinnawong and Paul H. DeNeui, William Carey Library, 2010.

For more images by Sawai Chinnawong in TIPs see here.

Mark 5:1-20 in Russian Sign Language

Following is the translation of Mark 5:1-20 into Russian Sign Language with a back-translation underneath:

Source: Russian Bible Society / Российское Библейское Общество

Jesus and His disciples were traveling in a boat. They came to the other side of the lake. There was a place called Gerasa. There was a place where there were many caves. People who had died were buried there. There was a man there. He was possessed by a demon. The man lived in these caves.

People tried to grab him and tie him up, but he tore all the ropes. They even tried to tie him up with chains. Many times they caught him, tied him up, but still he tore the chains, broke free and ran away. Day and night he walked there among the graves, climbed up the mountain and shouted loudly, and beat himself with stones, he was all scarred.

When Jesus arrived at the shore in a boat, the demon-possessed man saw Jesus, ran up to him, and knelt down before him.

Jesus looked at him and commanded, Demon, get out of this man!

The demon inside the man began to shout angrily, You, Jesus, are the Son of God! What do you want? I beg you before God — don’t torture me!

Jesus said: What is your name?

The demon answered: My name is Legion! It means a great multitude of warriors.

The demon continued: I beg you, if you drive us out of this area, where will we go?

Not far away, on a mountain, a large herd of pigs was grazing.

The demons began to ask Jesus: Permit us to go out and take possession of the pigs!

Jesus allowed it. The demons began to come out of this man and took possession of the pigs. And there were about two thousand pigs. The pigs began to be demonized. And there was a mountain, and all the pigs began to fall off the mountain into the sea and they all sank. The shepherds who were herding the pigs, when they saw that the pigs were drowned, were very frightened. They ran to the city of Gerasa and also to its surrounding villages, they said to the people, Look, look what has happened!

A large crowd gathered, the people went to that place. They saw Jesus and the man who was demon-possessed. He was healed, he became normal, he was sitting quietly, with his clothes on.

The people were frightened and began to ask: Is this the man who was demon-possessed?

Others began to say: Yes, it was him, he was healed. The demons came out of him and entered the pigs, and the pigs fell from the mountain into the sea.

That’s what the witnesses said. The people were frightened and began to ask: Who did it? Jesus?

And they said to Jesus, Don’t come to our land, go away from here!

Jesus turned around and got into the boat to sail on. The man who used to be demon-possessed came to Jesus and begged Him: Take me with you! May I come with you?

Jesus commanded: No! Go home to your family. God has healed you. Go tell all the people what God has done to you, that he has had mercy on you.

The man went around the ten cities, telling what Jesus had done for him, and all the people marveled.

Original Russian back-translation (click or tap here):

Иисус с учениками плыли в лодке. Они пристали к другому берегу. Там был город Гераса. Там было место, где было много пещер. Там хоронили умерших людей. Там был один человек. В него вселился бес. Человек жил с этих пещерах.

Люди пытались его схватить и связать, но он рвал все веревки. Даже цепями его пытались связать. Много раз его ловили, вязали, но все равно он рвал эти цепи, вырывался и убегал. Днем и ночью он ходил там среди могил, забирался на гору и громко кричал, и сам себя бил камнями, был весь израненный.

Вот Иисус причалил на лодке к берегу, сошел на землю, и тут бесноватый увидел Иисуса, подбежал к нему и бросился перед ним на колени.

Иисус посмотрел на него и приказал: Бес, выйдете вон из этого человека!

Бес внутри этого человека стал злобно кричать: Ты, Иисус, Сын Божий! Чего тебе надо? Умоляю тебя перед Богом — не мучь меня!

Иисус сказал: Как твое имя?

Бес ответил: Мое имя — Легион! Оно означает «великое множество воинов».

Бес продолжал: Умоляю тебя, если ты выгонишь нас из этой местности, куда нам деваться?

А недалеко оттуда, на горе, паслось большое стадо свиней.

Бесы стали просить Иисуса: Разреши нам выйти и вселиться в свиней!

Иисус позволил. Бесы начали выходить из этого человека и вселялись в свиней. А свиней было около двух тысяч. Свиньи начали бесноваться. А там была гора, и все свиньи начали срываться с горы в море и все потонули. Пастухи, которые пасли свиней, когда увидели, что свиньи утонули, очень испугались. Они побежали в город Герас, а также в его окрестные деревни, они сказали людям: Посмотрите, посмотрите, что случилось!

Собралась большая толпа, народ пошел к тому месту. Они увидели Иисуса и того человека, который был бесноватым. Он исцелился, стал нормальным, он спокойно сидел, в одежде.

Люди испугались, стали спрашивать: Точно ли это тот человек, который был бесноватым?

Другие стали говорить: Да, это он, он исцелился. Бесы из него вышли и вселились в свиней, и свиньи попадали с горы в море.

Так говорили свидетели. Народ испугался, стали спрашивать: Кто это сделал? Иисус?

И они обратились к Иисусу: Не ходи в наши края, уходи отсюда!

Иисус развернулся и сел в лодку, чтобы плыть дальше. Человек, который раньше был бесноватый, подошел к Иисусу и стал умолять Его:

Возьмите меня с собой! Можно, я пойду с вами?!

Иисус приказал: Нет! Иди домой к своим родным. Бог излечил тебя. Иди, расскажи всем людям, что Бог сделал с тобой, что он помиловал тебя. Этот человек ходил по десяти городам, что совершил Иисус для него, и все люди удивлялись.

Back-translation by Luka Manevich

<< Mark 4:35-41 in Russian Sign Language
Mark 5:21-43 in Russian Sign Language >>

See also Mark 5:1b-5 in Mexican Sign Language and Mark 5:6-20 in Mexican Sign Language.

Mark 5:6-20 in Mexican Sign Language

Following is the translation of Mark 5:6-20 (+ 5:1a and 2a) into Mexican Sign Language with back-translations into Spanish and English underneath:

© La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

Retrotraducciones en español (haga clic o pulse aquí)

Después vino el barco y Jesús salió del barco. El hombre con el demonio adentro vio a Jesús y bajo corriendo hacia él.

Jesús lo miró y expulsó al demonio mientras el hombre bajó corriendo, y él se arrodilló y se postró delante de él.

El demonio adentro de él gritó: “Jesús, tú hijo del Dios superior, ¿para qué viniste a mi? Por favor, dejame, no me maltrates, diselo a Dios.”

Jesus (dijo): “Alto, ¿tú nombre?” El demonio (dijo): “Mi nombre es Legión, muchos demonios.”

“Por favor, que me quede, no me tires al lugar allá por favor.” Vio en los alrededores muchos cerdos que estaban allá presentes. Dijo: “Por favor, tirame en los cerdos.”

Jesús lo permitió: “Sí, vayanse.”

Los demonios adentro del hombre se movían y se fueron. Había más o menos 2000 cerdos, que estaban comiendo pasto, y los demonios caían encima de ellos y la multitud se fue y cayó en el lago, y como no tenían aire, morían.

Unas personas que supervisaban (los cerdos) estaban sorprendidos y corrieron rápidamente a sus casas, gritando mientras corrían y advertiendo: “¡Vengan y vean!” e igual en otro pueblo advertieron: “¡Vengan y vean!”

La gente (pensaban) ¿Qué? y todos fueron allá “¿Qué es, qué es?” Todos vieron a Jesús y vieron al hombre, y ellos sabían que recientemente tenía un demonio adentro y que caminaba gritando, pero ahora lo vieron cambiado, diferente, con ropa normal y sentado tranquilamente, sano en mente.

La gente se espantó y dijo: “¿Cómo es?” Un hombre que supervisó (los cerdos) dijo: “Lo vi con mis propios ojos”, y lo contó a la gente y ellos se espantaron y tenían miedo.

Ellos miraron a Jesús y dijeron: “No te quedes aquí, vete, por favor.”

Jesús subió en el barco y el hombre, el mismo que estaba sentado con él, caminó haciá él y dijo: “Por favor, quiero ir contigo, por favor.”

Jesús (dijo):”Vete a la casa, y cuentalo a tu familia, que has sufrido mucho pero que Dios te vio y tenía compasión y te dio un milagro, vete a la casa.”

El hombre se fue a Decápolis y iba a diferentes lugares, contando (a la gente): “Jesús quitó los demonios, huy era un milagro.” Y todas las personas lo vieron y estaban asombrados.

Then came the boat and Jesus got out. The man with the demon inside saw Jesus and came running down.

Jesus looked at him and threw out the demon while the man came running down, and he knelt and fell down before him.

The demon inside him shouted: “Jesus son of God the exalted, what have you come to me for? Please leave me, tell God not to torture me.”

Jesus (said): “Stop, your name?” The demon (said): “My name is Legion, many demons.”

“Please, let me stay, please don’t throw me in that place over there.” Looking around he saw many pigs that were present in the area and said: “Please throw me in the pigs.”

Jesus gave permission: “Yes, go off.”

The demons inside the man began to move and went off. There were about 2000 pigs and they were eating grass, the demons fell on them and the whole herd went off and fell into the lake, and since they could not get air they died.

Some people that were looking after (the pigs) were shocked and quickly ran home, shouting while they were running and telling people: “Come and see!” In the same way in another village they told people: “Come and see!”

The people (thought) What? and they all went over: “What is it, what is it?” They all saw Jesus and they saw the man, and they knew that until recently he had a demon inside him and walked back and forth shouting, but now they saw him changed, different, with normal clothes on and sitting quietly, sound of mind.

The people were scared and said: “How is this?” and a man who looked after (the pigs) said: ” I saw it with my own eyes” and he told the people (what had happened) and they were scared and afraid.

They looked at Jesus and said: “Don’t stay here, please go away.”

Jesus got into the boat and the man, the same man that had just been sitting beside him, walked over and said: “Please, I want to go with you, please.”

Jesus (said): “Go home and tell your family that you have suffered much but God saw you and felt compassion for you and gave you a miracle, go home.”

The man went off to Decapolis and went to different places, telling (the people): “Jesus took away the demons, wow it was a miracle.” And all the people saw it and they were astonished.

Source: La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

<< Mark 5:1b-5 in Mexican Sign Language
Mark 5:21-43 in Mexican Sign Language >>

See also Mark 5:1-20 in Russian Sign Language.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Mark 5:9)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding Jesus).

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.

complete verse (Mark 5:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 5:9:

  • Uma: “Yesus asked him: ‘What is your (sing.) name?’ He said: ‘My name is Legion, for there are many of us (excl.) in one group who have entered into this person.’ (This name Legion, it’s meaning is: thousands.)” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then Isa asked him, he said, ‘What is your name?’ He answered, he said, ‘My name is Thousands because we are many.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus asked that person, he said, ‘What is your name?’ And the demon answered, ‘My name is Thousands, because we who possess this person are very many.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then Jesus asked him, ‘What is your (sing.) name?’ ‘By-the-thousands,’ he said, ‘because we (excl.) are many.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus questioned him, saying, ‘What is your name?’The evil spirit replied, ‘Multitude, for we are really many who are possessing this one.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The Greek Iēsous is “only” a proper name but one with great importance. The following quote by John Ellington (in The Bible Translator 1993, p. 401ff. ) illustrates this:

“In Matthew’s account of the birth of Jesus Christ, Joseph is told that when Mary gives birth to a son ‘you will name him Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins’ (1:21). This name is a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew name [Yeshua (יֵשׁוּעַ) which is a short form of a name meaning] ‘the Lord [Yahweh] saves.’ The name is very significant and is in itself especially dear to Christians around the world. (…) Unquestionably great importance is attached to the name of Jesus by Christians of all persuasions and backgrounds.”

While Iēsous (pronounced: /i.ɛː.suːs/) is transliterated as “Jesus” (pronounced /ˈdʒiːzəs/) in English (but was translated as “Hælend” [the “healing one”] in Old English — see Swain 2019) it is transliterated and pronounced in a large variety of other ways as well, following the different rules of different languages’ orthographies, writing systems and rules of pronunciation. The following is a (partial) list of forms of Jesus in Latin characters: aYeso, Azezi, Cecoc, Chesús, Chi̍i̍sū, Ciisahs, Ciise, Ciisusu, Djesu, Ɛisa, Ƹisa, Eyesu, Gesù, Gesû, Gesü, Ġesù, Ghjesù, Giêsu, ꞌGiê‑ꞌsu, Giê-xu, Gyisɛse, Hesu, Hesús, Hisus, Hisuw, Ià-sŭ, Iesen, Ié:sos, Iesu, Iesui, Iesusɨn, Iesusiva, Ié:sos, Ihu, Iisus, Ijeesu, iJisọsị, Iji̍sɔ̄ɔsi, Iosa, Íosa, Ìosa, İsa, I’sa, Isiso, Ísu, Isus, Isusa, Iisussa, Isuthi, Itota, Îtu, Isuva, Izesu, Izesuq, Jasus, Jeeju, Jeesus, Jeesus, Jeezas, Jehu, Jeisu, Jeju, Jejus, Jeso, Jesoe, Jesosa, Jesoshi, Jesosy, Jesu, Jesû, Jesua, Jesuh, Jesuhs, Jesús, Jésus, Jesúsu, Jethu, Jezed, Jezi, Jézi, Ježiš, Jezu, Jezus, Jézus, Jėzus, Jēzus, Jezusi, Jėzus, Jezuz, Jiijajju, Jíísas, Jiizas, Jíìzọ̀s, Jisas, Jisase, Jisasi, Jisasɨ, Jisasɨ, Jisaso, Jisesi, Jisɛ̀, Jisos, Jisọs, Jisɔs, Jisu, Jiszs, Jizọs, Jizɔs, Jizọsi, Jizọsu, Jòso, Jusu, Jweesus, Ketsutsi, Njises, Sesi, Sisa, Sísa, Sisas, Sīsū, Sizi, Txesusu, uJesu, Ujísɔ̄si, ŵaYesu, Xesosi, ´Xesús, Xesús, Yasu, Ya:su, Ɣaysa, Yecu, Yeeb Sub, Yeeh Suh, Yeesey, Yeeso, Yeesso, Yēēsu, Yēēsu, Yehsu, Yëësu, Yeisu, Yeisuw, Yeshu, Yeso, Yesò, Yëso, Yɛso, ye-su, Yésu, Yêsu, Yẹ́sụ̃, Yésʉs, Yeswa, Yet Sut, Yetut, Yexus, Yezo, Yezu, Yiisu, Yiitju, Yis, Yisɔs, Yisufa, Yitati, Yusu, ‑Yusu, :Yusu’, Zeezi, Zezi, Zezì, Zezwii, Ziizɛ, Zisas, Zîsɛ, Zjezus, Zozi, Zozii, and this (much more incomplete) list with other writings systems: ᔩᓱᓯ, ᒋᓴᔅ, Հիսուս, ᏥᏌ, ኢየሱስ, ያሱስ, ܝܫܘܥ, Ісус, Їисъ, 耶稣, იესო, ईसा, イエス, イイスス, イエスス, 예수, येशू, येशो, ਈਸਾ, ພຣະເຢຊູ, ජේසුස්, যীশু, ଯୀଶୁ, ཡེ་ཤུ་, ‘ঈছা, இயேசு, ಯೇಸು, ພຣະເຢຊູ, ယေရှု, ઇસુ, जेजू, येसु, เยซู, យេស៊ូ, ᱡᱤᱥᱩ, ယေသှု, యేసు, ᤕᤧᤛᤢ᤺ᤴ, އީސާގެފާނު, ਯਿਸੂ, ꕉꖷ ꔤꕢ ꕞ, ⵏ⵿ⵗⵢⵙⴰ, ଜୀସୁ, يَسُوعَ,ㄧㄝㄙㄨ, YE-SU, ꓬꓰ꓿ꓢꓴ, 𖽃𖽡𖾐𖼺𖽹𖾏𖼽𖽔𖾏, ꑳꌠ, ᠶᠡᠰᠦᠰ (note that some of these might not display correctly if your device does not have the correct fonts installed).

Click or tap here to read more.

In some languages the different confessions have selected different transliterations, such as in Belarusian with Isus (Ісус) by the Orthodox and Protestant churches and Yezus (Езус) by the Catholic church, Bulgarian with Iisus (Иисус) by the Orthodox and Isus (Исус) by the Protestant church, Japanese with Iesu (イエス) (Protestant and Catholic) and Iisusu (イイスス) (Orthodox), or Lingala with Yesu (Protestant) or Yezu (Catholic). These differences have come to the forefront especially during the work on interconfessional translations such as one in Lingala where “many hours were spent on a single letter difference” (source: Ellington, p. 401).

In Chinese where transliterations of proper names between the Catholic and Protestant versions typically differ vastly, the Chinese name of Jesus (Yēsū 耶稣) remarkably was never brought into question between and by those two confessions, likely due to its ingenious choice. (Click or tap here to see more).

The proper name of God in the Old Testament, Yahweh (YHWH), is rendered in most Chinese Bible translations as Yēhéhuá 耶和華 — Jehovah. According to Chinese naming conventions, Yēhéhuá could be interpreted as Yē Héhuá, in which would be the family name and Héhuá — “harmonic and radiant” — the given name. In the same manner, 耶 would be the family name of Jesus and 稣 would be his given name. Because in China the children inherit the family name from the father, the sonship of Jesus to God the Father, Jehovah, would be illustrated through this. Though this line of argumentation sounds theologically unsound, it is indeed used effectively in the Chinese church (see Wright 1953, p. 298).

Moreover, the “given name” of 稣 carries the meaning ‘to revive, to rise again’ and seems to point to the resurrected Jesus. (Source: J. Zetzsche in Malek 2002, p. 141ff., see also tetragrammaton (YHWH))

There are different ways that Bible translators have chosen historically and today in how to translate the name of Jesus in predominantly Muslim areas: with a form of the Arabic Isa (عيسى) (which is used for “Jesus” in the Qur’an), the Greek Iēsous, or, like major 20th century Bible translations into Standard Arabic, the Aramaic Yēšūaʿ: Yasua (يَسُوعَ). (Click or tap here to see more.)

Following are languages and language groups that use a form of Isa include the following (note that this list is not complete):

  • Indo-Iranian languages: Persian, Dari, Central Pashto, Southern Pashto all use Eysa (عيسی or عيسىٰ for Southern Pashto), Sindhi uses Eysey (عيسيٰ), Southern Balochi Issa (ایسّا), Central Kurdish (Sorani) and Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji) use Îsa (عیسای and Иса respectively), Turkmen has Isa, and Tajik Isoi (Исои — compare Iso/Исо in the Tajik Qur’an)
  • Turkic languages: Turkish uses İsa, Kazakh, Kumyk, Nogai, Crimean Tatar all have Isa (Иса), Kirghiz has Iysa (Ыйса), Uzbek has Iso (Исо — compare Iiso/Ийсо in the Uzbek Qur’an), Bashkir uses Aaisa (Ғайса), North Azerbaijani İsa, Uighur uses Eysa (ئەيسا), and Kara-Kalpak İysa (Ийса)
  • Caucasian languages: Bezhta and Lezghian use Isa (Иса), Avaric has Aisa (ГІиса), and Chechen Iza (Иза)
  • Various African languages: Somali, a Cushitic language, has Ciise, Kabyle has Ɛisa and Tahaggart Tamahaq has Yeswa (both Berber languages), the Saharan languages Central Kanuri, Manga Kanuri have Isa, the Atlantic-Congo languages Dagbani, Mampruli, and Bimoba use Yisa, and the Chadian Arabic Bible has Isa (عِيسَى)
  • In Indonesian, while most Bible translations had already used Yesus Kristus rather than Isa al Masih, three public holidays used to be described using the term Isa Al Masih. From 2024 on the government is using Yesus Kristus in those holiday names instead (see this article in Christianity Today ).
  • Some languages have additional “TAZI” editions (TAZI stands for “Tawrat, Anbiya, Zabur, and Injil” the “Torah, Prophets, Psalms and Gospel”) of the New Testament that are geared towards Muslim readers where there is also a translation in the same language for non-Muslims. In those editions, Isa is typically used as well (for example, the Khmer TAZI edition uses Isa (អ៊ីសា) rather than the commonly used Yesaou (យេស៊ូ), the Thai edition uses Isa (อีซา) rather than Yesu (เยซู), the Chinese edition uses Ěrsā (尔撒) vs. Yēsū (耶稣), and the English edition also has Isa rather than Jesus.)

In German the name Jesus (pronounced: /ˈjeːzʊs/) is distinguished by its grammatical forms. Into the 20th century the grammatical rules prescribed a unique Greek-Latin declination: Jesus (nominative), Jesu (genitive, dative, vocative), Jesum (accusative), from which today only the genitive case “Jesu” is still in active use. Likewise, in Seediq (Taroko), the morphological treatment of “Jesus” also occupies a special category by not falling under the normal rule of experiencing a vowel reduction when the object-specific suffix an is added “since it was felt that the readers might resent that the name has been changed that drastically.” (Compare Msian for “Moses” (Mosi) as an object, but Yisuan for “Jesus” (Yisu).) (Source: Covell 1998. p. 249)

In Lamba the name ŵaYesu consists of a transliteration Yesu and the prefix ŵa, a plural form for “proper names when addressing and referring to persons in any position of seniority or honor.” While this was avoided in early translations to avoid possible misunderstandings of more than one Jesus, once the church was established it was felt that it was both “safe” and respectful to use the honorific (pl.) prefix. (Source C. M. Doke in The Bible Translator 1958, p. 57ff. )

In virtually all sign languages, “Jesus” is signed with the middle finger of each hand pointing to the palm (or wrist) of the other in succession (signing the nails of the cross). In the context of Bible translation this has been pointed out as theologically problematic since the “semantic connections of the original name Jesus do point towards ‘salvation,’ they do not naturally lead to crucifixion.” (Source: Phil King in Journal of Translation 1 (2020), p. 33ff.)

“Jesus” in German Sign Language (source )

Following is the oldest remaining Ethiopian Orthodox icon of Jesus from the 14th or possibly 13th century (found in the Church of the Saviour of the World in Gurji, Ethiopia). As in many Orthodox icons, Jesus’ right hand forms the Greek letters I-C-X-C for IHCOYC XPICTOC or “Jesus Christ.” Another interpretation of the right hand is that it shows three fingers pointing to the Trinity, while the two other fingers point to Jesus’ two natures.

source (c) Jacques Mercier and Alain Mathieu

Orthodox icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

The style of the following drawing of Jesus by Annie Vallotton is described by the artist as this: “By using few lines the readers fill in the outlines with their imagination and freedom. That is when the drawings begin to communicate.” (see here )

Illustration by Annie Vallotton, copyright by Donald and Patricia Griggs of Griggs Educational Service.

Other visual representation of Jesus in TIPs include several non-Western styles of art: traditional Korean art, traditional Chinese art, modern Chinese abstract art, northern and central Thailand’s popular art, Japanese prints.

See also this devotion on YouVersion .

second person pronoun with low register

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way Japanese show different degree of politeness is through the choice of a second person pronoun (“you” and its various forms) as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017. The most commonly used anata (あなた) is typically used when the speaker is humbly addressing another person.

In these verses, however, omae (おまえ) is used, a cruder second person pronoun, that Jesus for instance chooses when chiding his disciples.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

See also first person pronoun with low register and third person pronoun with low register.