demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Luke 8:36)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 8:36:

  • Nyongar: “The people who saw what happened, they told the other people how Jesus had healed the man.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “The people who saw that happening told-the-story of how Yesus healed the possessed person.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then they were told by the people who had seen it as to how Isa had healed the person who had been demon possessed.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And those people who had seen Jesus heal the person, they told the people who had just arrived, just how the person who was afflicted with demons was cured.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then those who saw it again related how that man had become-well.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Those who had seen related how the craziness of that person had been stopped.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)