zealous for God

The Greek that is often translated in English as “zealous for God” is translated as “very much I was always ready for the word of God with all my heart” in Eastern Highland Otomi, as “very much wanted to do as I thought God wanted” in Lalana Chinantec, and as “every day I obey with all my innermost being all that God commands” Teutila Cuicatec. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (Acts 22:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 22:3:

  • Uma: “‘I am a Yahudi person. The town of my birth [is] Tarsus in the land of Kilikia, but from my childhood I stayed here in Yerusalem. And I was also well-schooled, my teacher was Gamaliel, a very respected teacher. He taught me all the laws that Musa gave to our ancestors. I faithfully followed God, like you here relatives.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘I am a Yahudi. I was born there in Tarsus in the land of Kilikiya, but I grew up here in Awrusalam. I was a pupil of Gamaliel, and I was taught very well in the law of our ancestors. And I have followed God wholly just like you now.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “‘I am a Jew. I was born in the province of Cilicia in the town of Tarsus, however I grew up here in Jerusalem because I was taught by Gamaliel. I was taught to thoroughly obey the law that was followed by our ancestors. And just like you today, I kept very carefully what I thought God wanted me to do.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘I am a Jew who was born in Tarsus in Cilicia, but here in Jerusalem is where-I-grew-up. Gamaliel was my teacher, and he thoroughly/carefully taught me all the laws of our ancestors. I also single-mindedly/persistently served God just like you.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘I really am a Jew. Where I was born was in Tarso in the district of Cilicia. However here in Jerusalem is where I was educated, my teacher being Gamaliel. He taught me very well what was strict obeying of our handed-down laws. Therefore my obeying God wasn’t only-when-reminded-of, but on the contrary, really with perseverance. Indeed like you now/today.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)