zeal, zealous

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated in English as “zeal” or “zealous” is translated in Moken as “great love” (“my zeal” — cewui lak tho: “my great love.”) (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is likewise translated as “love, commitment, enthusiasm” (not jealousy). (Source: Robert Bascom)

In Khasi is is translated with shitrhem which conveys the “idea of loving or devoted enthusiasm.” (Source: B. J. Syiemlieh)

complete verse (1 Peter 4:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Peter 4:8:

  • Uma: “Above all, love one another with true hearts, because if we love our companions, we do not think about [lit., we do not in-heart] their many wrongs against us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And most (important) above all, you should really love each other because if you really love each other even if you have many sins/faults towards your companion you will forgive each other.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “It is necessary that above all you hold tight to holding any one of your fellow believers dear in your breath. For when we (incl.) hold our fellow believers dear, it is easy for us to forgive their sins against us.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The most-important-thing you should do, persevere in loving-one-another, because if you love-one-another, you won’t be thinking-and-thinking of the sins of your companions but rather you will be-patient-with-one-another and forgive-one-another.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Above all, really value one another. For as long as we value our companions, we will be forgiving of their faults/wrongs.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “That which is highly important for you to do is that you must very much love each other. Because the person who loves his fellowman will forgive him even though that one continually does bad to him.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

sin

The Hebrew and Greek that is typically translated as “sin” in English has a wide variety of translations.

The Greek ἁμαρτάνω (hamartanō) carries the original verbatim meaning of “miss the mark.” Likewise, many translations contain the “connotation of moral responsibility.” Loma has (for certain types of sin) “leaving the road” (which “implies a definite standard, the transgression of which is sin”) or Navajo uses “that which is off to the side.” (Source: Bratcher / Nida). In Toraja-Sa’dan the translation is kasalan, which originally meant “transgression of a religious or moral rule” and has shifted its meaning in the context of the Bible to “transgression of God’s commandments.” (Source: H. van der Veen in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 21 ff.).

In Shipibo-Conibo the term is hocha. Nida (1952, p. 149) tells the story of its choosing:

“In some instances a native expression for sin includes many connotations, and its full meaning must be completely understood before one ever attempts to use it. This was true, for example, of the term hocha first proposed by Shipibo-Conibo natives as an equivalent for ‘sin.’ The term seemed quite all right until one day the translator heard a girl say after having broken a little pottery jar that she was guilty of ‘hocha.’ Breaking such a little jar scarcely seemed to be sin. However, the Shipibos insisted that hocha was really sin, and they explained more fully the meaning of the word. It could be used of breaking a jar, but only if the jar belonged to someone else. Hocha was nothing more nor less than destroying the possessions of another, but the meaning did not stop with purely material possessions. In their belief God owns the world and all that is in it. Anyone who destroys the work and plan of God is guilty of hocha. Hence the murderer is of all men most guilty of hocha, for he has destroyed God’s most important possession in the world, namely, man. Any destructive and malevolent spirit is hocha, for it is antagonistic and harmful to God’s creation. Rather than being a feeble word for some accidental event, this word for sin turned out to be exceedingly rich in meaning and laid a foundation for the full presentation of the redemptive act of God.”

In Kaingang, the translation is “break God’s word” and in Sandawe the original meaning of the Greek term (see above) is perfectly reflected with “miss the mark.” (Source: Ursula Wiesemann in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 36ff., 43)

In Warao it is translated as “bad obojona.” Obojona is a term that “includes the concepts of consciousness, will, attitude, attention and a few other miscellaneous notions.” (Source: Henry Osborn in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 74ff.). See other occurrences of Obojona in the Warao New Testament.

See also sinner.