conscience

The Greek that is rendered in English as “conscience” is translated into Aari as “our thoughts speak to us,” in Nuer it is “the knowledge of their heart” (source: Jan Sterk), in Cheke Holo “to know what is straight and what is wrong” (source: Carl Gross), in Chokwe “law of the heart” (source D.B. Long in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 135ff. ), in Toraja-Sa’dan penaa ma’pakilala or “the admonishing within” (source: H. van der Veen in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 21 ff. ), in Yatzachi Zapotec as “head-hearts,” in Tzeltal as “hearts” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.), in Enlhet as “innermost,” in Northern Emberá as “thinking” (source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1975, p. 201ff. ), and in Elhomwe as “what reminds the heart” or “whole heart” (“since the idea of conscience is something that reminds the heart”) (source: project-specific translation notes in Paratext).

In Warao it is translated with obojona, a term that “includes the concepts of consciousness, will, attitude, attention and a few other miscellaneous notions” (source: Henry Osborn in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 74ff. ). See other occurrences of Obojona in the Warao New Testament.

See also conscience seared and perfect conscience / clear conscience, clear conscience towards God and all people, and brothers, up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God.

complete verse (1 Corinthians 10:27)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 10:27:

  • Uma: “If any of you are called by a friend who is not a Kristen person to go eat at their house, and you want to go, eat what they offer you. You don’t have to ask first whether it is meat that was offered to idols or not.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “For example, there is a person who does not trust in Isa Almasi who invites you to eat and you want to go, you can eat whatever he places before you. But don’t ask (keep asking) if it has been given to the idols in order that you will eat without hindrance.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If there is someone who has not believed in our Lord, and he asks you to eat in his house and you go, it’s allowable for you to eat what he sets before you. However, you must not ask if it has been sacrificed or not, so that you will not feel guilty if it has been sacrificed.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “If moreover there is someone who does not believe who invites you (sing.) to eat and you (sing.) want to go eat-with (him), eat your (sing.) fill (lit. eat properly), whatever they set-before (you) without asking whether it was offered to idols.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “If you are invited to go and eat at the house of a person who is not a believer, and you want to attend, eat whatever is set before you. Don’t bother your mind/inner-being or ask if it was used in worshipping a pretend god or not.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “If a person who is not a believer invites you to a meal and you decide to go, then eat whatever is given to you. Do not first ask whether the meat has been sacrificed or not. Do not be afraid to eat it.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

Translation commentary on 1 Corinthians 10:27

If: Christians very probably received such invitations in Corinth.

One of the unbelievers: see comments on 6.6; 7.12-15. Paul means “those who do not believe in Christ,” or perhaps more narrowly “pagans,” excluding Jews. The word is not used here as an insult. Paul is merely stating a fact.

To dinner is not in the text but is clearly implied by verse 27b.

You are disposed is literally “you want,” but this can be misunderstood as suggesting that the Corinthian Christians did not go to such meals. This is not Paul’s intention.

It will be unnatural in some languages to put the two verbs go, eat together like this. In such a case, one may say “go, you should eat.”

Whatever is set before you may be rephrased as “the food that they give to you” or “whatever they put on the table.”

For without raising … of conscience, see comments on verse 25.

On the translation of conscience see 4.4; 8.7, and elsewhere.

Quoted with permission from Ellingworth, Paul and Hatton, Howard A. A Handbook on Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd edition. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1985/1994. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .

formal second person plural pronoun

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way Japanese show different degree of politeness is through the choice of a formal plural suffix to the second person pronoun (“you” and its various forms) as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

In these verses, anata-gata (あなたがた) is used, combining the second person pronoun anata and the plural suffix -gata to create a formal plural pronoun (“you” [plural] in English).

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )