cloud / sky

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “cloud” or “sky” in most English translations is translated in Mwera with only one term: liunde. (Source: Pioneer Bible Translators, project-specific translation notes in Paratext)

See also heaven and sky.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (1Cor. 10:1)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form (including the addressee).

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.

brother (fellow believer)

The Greek that is translated in English as “brother” (in the sense of a fellow believer), is translated with a specifically coined word in Kachin: “There are two terms for brother in Kachin. One is used to refer to a Christian brother. This term combines ‘older and younger brother.’ The other term is used specifically for addressing siblings. When one uses this term, one must specify if the older or younger person is involved. A parallel system exists for ‘sister’ as well. In [these verses], the term for ‘a Christian brother’ is used.” (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Martu Wangka it is translated as “relative” (this is also the term that is used for “follower.”) (Source: Carl Gross)

See also brothers.

complete verse (1 Corinthians 10:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 10:1:

  • Uma: “Relatives, remember what happened to our ancestors whom the prophet Musa brought out of the land of Mesir. All of them were shadowed by the cloud, the sign that God was with them. All of them passed through the sea that dried-up.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “My brothers, I will remind you what happened to our (incl.) forefathers the Yahudi at the time when they followed Musa in those old times. They were all overshadowed by a cloud, a sign that God went with them. They also all crossed on foot in the middle of the sea which they call the Red Sea and nothing happened to them.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I want you to know, brothers, what the ancestors of us (excl.) Jews did who went along with Moses. They were sheltered over by the cloud which was the sign that God had come down to them. And they crossed over the sea which was called Red, and they were not drowned.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “I want you to remember brothers what happened to our ancestors who followed Moses. All of them were protected and guided-by the cloud that God caused-to-accompany them. They also all walked-safely -through what is called Reddish Ocean.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “For I want, my siblings in believing, that you understand the meaning of what happened to our fellow people of God in the time of Moises. All of them, (they) were shaded by the cloud that God graciously-gave them. All of them also, by the strength of his supernatural-power (they) were able to cross the sea that is called Red Sea.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Listen my brothers, do not forget this word here, that God caused that the cloud went before where the people who were our ancestors should go and he caused that the people crossed the Red Sea.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)