The Greek that is typically translated as “mind” in English is translated in Warao as obojona, a term that “includes the concepts of consciousness, will, attitude, attention and a few other miscellaneous notions.” (Source: Henry Osborn in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 74ff. )

In Elhomwe it is often translated as “heart,” “because all thoughts come from heart in Elhomwe thought.” (Source: project-specific translation notes in Paratext)

See other occurrences of Obojona in the Warao New Testament.


The Greek that is rendered in English as “conscience” is translated into Aari as “our thoughts speak to us,” in Nuer it is “the knowledge of their heart” (source: Jan Sterk), in Cheke Holo “to know what is straight and what is wrong” (source: Carl Gross), in Chokwe “law of the heart” (source D.B. Long in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 135ff. ), in Toraja-Sa’dan penaa ma’pakilala or “the admonishing within” (source: H. van der Veen in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 21 ff. ), in Yatzachi Zapotec as “head-hearts,” in Tzeltal as “hearts” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.), in Enlhet as “innermost,” in Northern Emberá as “thinking” (source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1975, p. 201ff. ), and in Elhomwe as “what reminds the heart” or “whole heart” (“since the idea of conscience is something that reminds the heart”) (source: project-specific translation notes in Paratext).

In Warao it is translated with obojona, a term that “includes the concepts of consciousness, will, attitude, attention and a few other miscellaneous notions” (source: Henry Osborn in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 74ff. ). See other occurrences of Obojona in the Warao New Testament.

See also conscience seared and perfect conscience / clear conscience, clear conscience towards God and all people, and brothers, up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God.

complete verse (Titus 1:15)

Following are a number of back-translations of Titus 1:15:

  • Uma: “For people whose hearts are pure, there is nothing that is taboo/forbidden. But people whose hearts are evil and who do not believe, nothing is holy, for their thoughts are crooked to-start-with, and their evil behavior has become habitual [lit., has-become-flesh], until they no longer feel/are-aware that they are wrong.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If a person has a clean/holy liver even whatever, it is clean/holy to him. But to a person whose liver is not clean/holy and he does not yet trust in Isa Almasi, there is nothing clean/holy to him because there is evil/bad in his liver and his thoughts and he cannot distinguish good and bad.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If there is a person whom God has cleansed, nothing can make him filthy. But if there is a person whom God has not cleansed, there is no other way for him to be cleansed. For he will not believe and his mind and breath are wicked.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “As for the person whose mind is clean, his considering of everything is also clean, but as for the one whose mind is filthy who doesn’t believe, everything is filthy to him, because his mind has already become-filthy and he is not able-to-distinguish good and evil.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The person whose sin has been erased by God and whose nature/ways have been made new, there’s nothing he avoids/taboos now like food, for he’s aware that everything is good. But to the person who is evil who doesn’t believe in God, it’s like there is nothing he regards as good, because it’s like everything has been contaminated by the evil of his mind/inner-being which no longer can recognize good or not.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The person who has a good heart, just by touching something it cannot be said that therefore his heart has been spoiled. But concerning those who have evil hearts, and are not believers, in nothing will they find what is good. Because now their thoughts are evil and they do not feel sad when they do evil.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

Translation commentary on Titus 1:15

Here we are given yet another clue as to the heresy that Titus is confronted with in Crete, and that has to do with confusing moral purity with ritual purity, and teaching that moral purity can be achieved through strict adherence to rules, particularly concerning food. In contrast to this, Paul stresses that ritual purity is dependent on moral purity and not the other way around. The situation being described here is once again similar to that of 1 Timothy; in fact the present passage has some similarities with 1 Tim 4.1-5.

For pure see 1 Tim 1.5. The first pure (in the pure) is used here in a moral sense, whereas the second pure (in all things are pure) is used in a ritual sense; in other words, all things are ritually pure to those who are morally pure. All things may be understood in a general way to include everything; it is possible, however, that what is in focus here is food (compare 1 Tim 4.3-4, where “all things” is also used in connection with food). Another translation model for To the pure all things are pure is “For those people who have a heart (or, mind) that has no sinful thoughts, all things are ritually pure.”

Corrupt translates a participle that means “defiled” either morally or ritually; in the present context moral defilement is in focus. The verb at the end of the verse, are corrupted, is in the perfect tense, which means that the defilement happened sometime in the past, but its effects are still apparent up to the present, so much so that the person affected is in a state of moral filthiness. In many languages one may express the corrupt as “people with dirty (or, filthy) minds.”

For unbelieving see 1 Tim 5.8. Nothing is ritually pure to people who are not Christians and to people who live morally filthy lives, whether they are Christians or not. On the other hand, everything is ritually pure to those who are morally pure.

The last part of the verse describes further the corrupt situation of the heretical teachers and at the same time explains why to them nothing is ritually pure, and that is, because both their minds and their consciences have been defiled as well. For minds see 1 Tim 6.5. For consciences see 1 Tim 1.5. These two elements refer both to the thinking process and moral standards of these heretical teachers; since these have been defiled, that is, made impure and filthy by sin, their very lives are adversely affected as well. Another translation model is:

• “For what has been defiled (or, become completely dirty) for such a person is both the mind and the heart, which distinguishes between right and wrong.”

An alternative translation model for this verse is:

• For those people who have a heart (or, mind) that has no sinful thoughts, everything is ritually pure. But for those people who have dirty minds and do not believe in Christ, both their minds and their hearts that distinguish between right and wrong (or, consciences) have become completely filthy.

Quoted with permission from Arichea, Daniel C. and Hatton, Howard A. A Handbook on Paul’s Letter to Titus. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1995. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .