led by

The Greek that is translated “led by” or similar in English is translated in various ways:

transgression, trespass

The Greek that is often translated as “trespass” or “transgression” in English is translated as “missing the commandment” in Kipsigis and “to step beyond the law” in Navajo. (Source: Bratcher / Nida 1961)

In Tepeuxila Cuicatec it is translated as “thing not reached.” Marjorie Davis (in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 34ff.) explains: “[This] implies that the goal was not reached, the task was not finished, or of finished, it was not satisfactorily done. According to the Cuicateco way of thinking of one does not what is expected of him, he offends [or: trespasses] and is an offence.”

complete verse (Romans 5:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 5:18:

  • Uma: “So from the transgression of Adam all people become wrong/guilty and fit to be punished. So also from the straight thing that Yesus did, all people can become straight in God’s sight and they get good life forever.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then because of one sin only all mankind is destined to be punished by God. Likewise also because of one straight deed all human beings can be forgiven and be considered straight by God and they live without end.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And in the same way also, we can see that because of the one evil thing that Adam did, everybody was judged worthy of punishment. But also because of one righteous thing that Jesus Christ did, which was His allowing Himself to be killed, it’s possible that as for everybody who believes, God will consider them righteous and He will give them life forever.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore all people were condemned to die because of the one sin, but because of the one right-thing that Cristo did, it is also possible for all people to be counted righteous so that they will have life that has no end.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “This Adam committed sin and thus all the people are subject to going to punishment. But this Jesus Christ did good and thus all the people are subject to having their sins cleared and encountering the new life.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)