transgression, trespass

The Greek that is often translated as “trespass” or “transgression” in English is translated as “missing the commandment” in Kipsigis and “to step beyond the law” in Navajo.

In Tepeuxila Cuicatec it is translated as “thing not reached.” Marjorie Davis (in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 34ff.) explains: “[This] implies that the goal was not reached, the task was not finished, or of finished, it was not satisfactorily done. According to the Cuicateco way of thinking of one does not what is expected of him, he offends [or: trespasses] and is an offence.”

complete verse (Romans 5:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 5:16:

  • Uma: “The gift of God to us is different than the sin of Adam. That one person transgressed God’s command, the result being all people are guilty in God’s sight and must be punished. But from the free gift of God to us he wiped out our transgressions and said that we were straight in his sight.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The love-gift of God is-not-the-same as/cannot-be-compared-with the result of the sin of Apu’ Adam. The result of that one sin of Apu’ Adam is that judgment is dropped by God on all human-beings that they are sinful and ought to be punished. But this is the love-gift of God, even-though all people sin they are forgiven and considered straight by him.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “In the same way also, that which Jesus did because of the becoming righteous which God makes possible, was not like the transgression that the other man, Adam, did. Because of the transgression of Adam who was only one, the whole of mankind was judged to be punished by death. And at the time when the transgressions of people were very many, God showed His kindness and He made a way so that we (incl.) might be considered righteous, just as if we had never done any transgressions.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Another distinction between God’s gift and the result of one man’s sin is this. The result of that one sin was that all people were condemned to be punished, but because of God’s grace the many sins of all people can be forgiven and they can be counted as righteous in God’s sight.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When sin began, God said that sin will have the payment of punishment. But when after very many people had committed sin, God said that he would do the favor of clearing people who have sin.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)