demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Luke 8:27)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 8:27:

  • Nyongar: “As Jesus stepped onto the shore, a man from the town met him. Many evil spirits lived inside him. For many years, this man went without clothes and didn’t stay in a house, but he stayed inside the caves of the dead.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: (incl. v. 28, 29) “There was there a townsperson who was possessed by many demons. For a long time that person had not worn-clothes and he did not live in a house. His living-place was just the graves. He was often possessed. Even if he has bound by ropes and chains and continually watched, he could still break his bindings and escape/run-away going to the empty-place, because he was carried by the strength of the demons that possessed him. When Yesus landed/disembarked from the boat going to the shore, that possessed person came to meet him. When he saw Yesus, he shouted and kneeled in front of him. Yesus ordered those demons to go-out. That person said loudly: ‘Ee Yesus, Child of God who is in heaven! Why have you (sing.) come? I request that you (sing.) do not torment me!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When Isa got out of the boat, he was met by a certain person from the town of that place who was demon possessed. For a long time already he had not put on clothes and he did not live in a house but in the burial caves.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: (incl. v. 28, 29) “And when Jesus got out of the boat, he happened on to a person who had before been inhabitant there in the town of the Gergesenes, and he was afflicted with demons. And as for that person, for a long time he had not worn clothes; he did not live in a house, rather he lived there in the burial caves. It was not just a few times only that that man was controlled by that which wants to harm him, and even though he was often fastened with chains and guarded by people, he easily broke the chains and the demon lead him away into the land where no people lived. But when he saw Jesus he shouted out and he fell on his face in front of Jesus, saying with a very loud voice, ‘You Jesus, son of the very high God, what are you going to do with me? I beg you that you do not punish me yet!’ He said this because Jesus said to the demon that he should come out of him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When they landed and Jesus got-out-of the boat, he was met by a man from that-aforementioned town who was possessed by many-evil-spirits. For a long time he had been naked and hadn’t gone-home, because he stayed in the burial (lit. cemetery) caves.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “As Jesus was-leaving-the-water, he was met by a man who was possessed/made-crazy by an evil spirit. That person was indeed from the town but for a long time now had not been clothed and no longer lived in a house. He was just there in the cemetary.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)