demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Luke 11:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 11:14:

  • Nyongar: “Jesus was driving out an evil spirit. The evil spirit could not speak and when the evil spirit went out, the man started speaking. All the people were surprised.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “One day, Yesus expelled a demon from a person who was not able to speak. As soon as he shooed that demon, that person was able to speak. The people were surprised.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Once also Isa drove out a demon that caused dumbness. When the demon had been driven out, the dumb person could already speak. The people wondered very much.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There was a time when Jesus healed a man who had been made deaf and dumb by a demon, which was afflicting him. And when Jesus removed the demon, immediately that man could speak. And all the people who were gathered there were very much surprised.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “On one-occasion, Jesus caused-to-leave a evil-spirit who had-made-a man -dumb. When that evil-spirit went-away, the one-whom-he-left could-speak again, and the many-people were amazed.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Once there was an evil spirit which Jesus drove out which was causing a man to be dumb. Well, after it was driven out, that man could speak. The crowd of people was amazed who observed it.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)