he who, whoever

The Greek that is typically translated with a generic expressions such as “he who,” “whoever,” or “if anyone” in English is translated with the plural form (“they”) in Daga. “A literal translation of these conveys the idea that one specific unnamed individual is being dis cussed. Thus, for instance, in John 5:24 ‘he who hears my word and believes in him who sent me has eternal life’ meant in Daga that there was one fortunate individual to whom it applied.”

See also love your neighbor as yourself.

complete verse (James 4:11)

Following are a number of back-translations of James 4:11:

  • Uma: “Relatives, let’s not talk-critically about each other. A person who talks-critically-about or accuses-of-wrong his relative, it’s like he is actually talking-critically-about or accusing-of-wrong the Lord’s Law. The person who accuses-of-wrong his relative, he is not following the Lord’s Law. We can say that it is like he himself is deciding/judging the Lord’s Law.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “My brothers, don’t speak-evil-about/insult your companions. For whoever speaks-evil-about/insults his companion and says that his companion is mistaken/at fault, it is as if he speaks-evil-about/insults the law of God and says that (it is) at fault. If you say that God’s law is at fault, it means it is no longer you who follow/obey the law but you are the ones to be followed/obeyed because you are the judge.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Brethren, stop insulting each other for the one who insults and criticizes his fellow believer, it is as if he is speaking in rejection of the highest law. Perhaps he is thinking that he is greater than God who gave the Law. And if we speak in rejection against his law, we will not obey it, rather it’s as if we are greater than God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Brothers, don’t speak-evil-of-one-another, because the one who speaks-evil-of his companion, it’s as if he is also speaking-evil-of God’s law which says that we should love-one-another. And the one who speaks-evil-of God’s law, that is the evidence that he doesn’t obey that law, but rather he counts it as if it is of no account.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “My siblings in believing, put far away from you the habit/nature of using harsh/insulting language. Because whoever uses harsh/insulting language against his sibling in believing, which is like he’s passing judgment on him, he is insulting/belittling the law of God. He is regarding as pointless/worthless what was commanded that we value one another. Of course as long as you (sing.) are insulting/belittling this law, you (sing.) can’t be said to be following/obeying, but rather you (sing.) are overriding it, as if you were more important than God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Listen, my dear brethren, do not speak against each other. He who speaks against his fellowmen or makes judgments on his conduct is a person who does not approve of what God’s law says, saying that it isn’t right in what it says. But if it be that your judge concerning what the law says and do not do what it says, then you yourself decide how you should live just like a ruler who decides things on his own.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)