The Greek that is rendered as “image” in English translations is translated in Pökoot with körkeyïn, a word that is also used to translate words like parable and example.

See also parable.


The Greek that is translated as “perfect” in English is translated into Tsou as “a person who reaches the pinnacle.”

See also perfection.

complete verse (Hebrews 10:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Hebrews 10:1:

  • Uma: “The Lord’s Law that Musa delivered is merely like a picture. In that Law we do not yet really know the goodness that we get from Kristus. We just see its shadow, not its real image. According to the Law of Musa, every-every year, people who want to approach God bring their worship-gifts that are always the same, but they do not become straight in God’s sight by their bringing those worship-gifts.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law that God gave to the Yahudi in old times is only like a shadow. That is the true thing, the different good things that Almasi brought when he came here to earth. The law says hep that every year without end sacrifices have to be made to God but these sacrifices cannot make straight/righteous the livers of the people worshipping God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “We (incl.) now understand that the Law left behind by Moses was just a shadow. And all of the good things that come by means of Christ, these are the true things that the Law reflected. It was commanded by the Law that every year it was necessary for the sacrifices to be made; because of this we understand also that by means of these sacrifices it was not possible for people to be made righteous.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The law of Moses, it is like a mere shadow or drawing which was-showing the nature of the good blessings that Cristo gives, but it is not the same as those blessings. Therefore even though every-year those who worshipped God continued to offer what the law commanded, it was absolutely not possible for them to become people who had no faults/lacks righteous on-account-of their doing that.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “As for those laws which God put into the hands of the Jews, this is not the means-of-obtaining the good things that are coming. Those things that the law can obtain, they (are) only like a shadow of these which are coming. For those animals that they are-making-sacrifices-of year after year, which-are-a-means-of-asking for forgiveness for sin, they certainly cannot erase the sin of those going-to- God -for-help.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Moses wrote the law by which the Jews walk. But this law he wrote is like the shadow of the good which must come afterwards. Because with the law it doesn’t appear well about the word which will come afterwards. Those people who worshipped God made sacrifices which the law commanded. But the sacrifice the people made did not take away the people’s sins because year after year the people made the sacrifices over again.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)