complete verse (Galatians 4:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of Galatians 4:21:

  • Uma: “Ee, you who want to submit to the Law of Musa! Just listen to my words! I’ll tell you what is written in the Book of the Law of Musa.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You, the ones who want to follow the law written by Musa in the holy-book, do you not know as to what the holy-book says?” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “You who want to observe the Law, I tell you what is the interpretation of observing the Law.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “All-right then, you who want your salvation to be based on your following the law of Moses, you ought to think about what that law says.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well now, this is my question to you, you who still want to submit to the laws written in the writing of the past, have you not grasped/understood what that writing was getting at (lit. hitting)?” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Everyone who wants to do what all is written in the law followed by the Jews, haven’t you ever heard what is written in the book of the law?” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)