The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

spirit/demon comes (out)

The Greek that is translatede as “spirit/demon comes (out)” in various forms in English is translated in
as “spirit/demon pour (out),” because “ephe (‘come’), sounds as if the demons are human beings. We use only ephe for human beings.” (Source: Samuel Iyoku in The Bible Translator 1977, p. 404ff. )

complete verse (Luke 8:33)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 8:33:

  • Nyongar: “They left the man and they went into the pigs. All the pigs ran together down the cliff into the lake and they drowned.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “The demons really did go-out from inside that person, immediately entered the pigs. When they entered those pigs, the pigs stampeded going to plunge into the lake, they drowned [lit., died swollen] in the water.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then the demons came out of the person and entered the bodies of the pigs. Immediately the great herd of pigs rushed down the hill to the cliff and into the lake and they all drowned.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And that was all there was to it — they left the man and they transferred there to the pigs. And then those pigs ran, and they arrived there to a cliff, and they jumped over and they were all drowned in the lake that they had jumped into.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So they then left the man and went and possessed the pigs. Then the pigs ran-as-a-group going-downhill and then they fell into the lake and drowned.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Without anything further, those evil spirits then left that person and moved to that large herd of pigs. Well, what else but those pigs ran directly to the steep edge of that lake. Those pigs numbering about two thousand fell off and all drowned.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)