love (Khanty)

There is no word in Khanty that directly corresponds to the concept of “love.”

In one of the two Bible translation projects (see here ) for which so far (2023) Genesis, Jonah, Luke, and Acts have been translated, mosty (мосты) with the primary meaning of “to be needed” or “to be necessary” was often used when translating the Greek agapao (ἀγαπάω) and the Hebrew aheb (אָהַב) — “love” in English — and the Greek agapétos (ἀγαπητός) — “beloved” in English.

Interestingly, the same word is also used in verses like Luke 7:2 for the Greek entimos (ἔντιμος) or “value highly” or in Luke 20:17 and Acts 4:11 where the “cornerstone” is the “necessary stone.”

In the other translation project in Khanty, the gospel of Mark has been translated (see here ). Here the translators have used vŏłanga săma (вŏԓаӈа сăма), meaning “important” or “pleasant to the heart” when referring to love.

Source: Ivan Borshchevsky

complete verse (Luke 20:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 20:13:

  • Nyongar: “‘Then the boss of the orchard said, ‘What will I do? I have only one son. I love him. I will send him. Surely, they will hear him.'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “‘From there, the owner of the field/garden said: ‘What shall I do? It is better that I just order my beloved child to go, because definitely they will submit to him.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do? It is better if I send my child whom I really love. Perhaps they will honor/treat-according-to-custom him.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then the owner of the field said, he said, ‘What am I going to do? I know, I will send my dear son, because they wouldn’t dare harm him, but rather they will respect him.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then the farm owner said, ‘What perhaps can I do? I’ll just go ahead and send (lit. Even-if I send) my only and much-loved child, because it is perhaps possible that they will respect (lit. have-shame-to) him.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The owner said, ‘Whatever would be good for me to do? Oh yes,’ he said, ‘probably it would be good if this very-dear son of mine is whom I will cause to go there. Surely as long as it is he, they will welcome/treat-him -well.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)