for the grace of God has appeared bringing salvation to all

The Greek that is translated as “for the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all” or similar in English is translated in Wahgi as “God saying like this, ‘I desire to save without reward all people,’ sent Christ.” Like many languages, Wahgi not allow for verbal nominalization where a verb can be turned into a noun.

See also grace.

shadow (vs. spirit)

The Greek that is translated in English as “shadow” had to be translated in Dusun Witu as “sun shadow” because there is only one word for both “shadow” and “spirit.” (Source: Deibler / Taylor 1977, p. 1073.)

See also shadow.

grace be with you

The Greek that is translated into English as “grace be with you” or similar is translated into Iatmul as “I want God to help all of you freely.” Like many languages, Iatmul does not allow for verbal nominalization where a verb can be turned into a noun.

See also grace.

hemorrhage stopped

The Greek that is translated as “hemorrhage stopped” or “made well” in English was translated in Kalam with the regularly used expression “it was dried up.” (Source: Deibler / Taylor 1977, p. 1075.)

order of events (Acts 10:48)

In many languages, “events which are implied in a chrono­logical sequence need to be inserted in the translation. Acts 10:48 states, ‘he commanded them to be baptized . . . then they asked him to remain for some days;’ in Wahgi the additional actions ‘so they baptized them’ and ‘so Peter stayed with them’ had to be added so the readers would know both actions actually occurred.”

leprosy healed

The Greek that is translated as “leprosy healed” or “leprosy left (him)” is translated in Alekano as “(he was) made to shed his skin.” (Source: Deibler / Taylor 1977, p. 1075)

See also leprosy.

order of events (Acts 1:4)

In many languages, “events which are implied in a chrono­logical sequence need to be inserted in the translation (…) In Acts 1:4 Jesus says, ‘Do not leave Jerusalem , but wait . . . ‘; in Gadsup the words ‘and then go’ were added at the end, otherwise the readers will think the injunction was never to leave.”

verb forms in Luke 10:18-19

“In Angal Heneng there are three different forms of the verb depending on involvement of speaker and hearer in the action, and all three are illustrated in Luke 10:18-19. When Jesus says, ‘I saw Satan fall,’ it is assumed that the speaker [Jesus] saw the action and the hearers didn’t, and the form of the verb indicates such. When Jesus continues and says ‘I have given you power [or: authority],’ the form used indicates that both speaker and hearers were together when the action occurred. But on the verb of the clause expressing ‘Jesus said to them,’ a third form is used which indicates that neither the writer (Luke) nor the addressee (Theophilus) were there at the time the inci­dent occurred.” (Source: Deibler / Taylor 1977, p. 1076.)

chronological order (Luke 2:7)

In many languages, “events which are implied in a chrono­logical sequence need to be inserted in the translation (…) In Luke 2:7 , after describing the birth of Jesus and his being laid in a manger, the text says, ‘because there was no room for them in the inn;’ in Enga the events were placed in chronological order and the words ‘she entered the cattle place and’ inserted before mentioning the birth, to account for Mary getting from the inn to the place of Jesus’s birth.”

The text of the verse in Enga: Dokopa Matiame baanya wane mupa ane doko mandea-pyaa. Mandipala lapalapame ambo pyapala mena pulumakawanya nee nenge tapoko mendenya setapala isoo petea-pyaa. Endakali opone palenge anda dokonya palipenge panda nasiamosa dopa pia-pyaa.

lived after

In many languages, “events which are implied in a chrono­logical sequence need to be inserted in the translation (…) In Genesis 11 where the text says, ‘so-and-so lived after (so many sons and daughters so many years),’ at the end of each occurrence the Timbe translation adds, ‘and he died’ to complete the chronological sequence.”