love (Khanty)

There is no word in Khanty that directly corresponds to the concept of “love.”

In one of the two Bible translation projects (see here ) for which so far (2023) Genesis, Jonah, Luke, and Acts have been translated, mosty (мосты) with the primary meaning of “to be needed” or “to be necessary” was often used when translating the Greek agapao (ἀγαπάω) and the Hebrew aheb (אָהַב) — “love” in English — and the Greek agapétos (ἀγαπητός) — “beloved” in English.

Interestingly, the same word is also used in verses like Luke 7:2 for the Greek entimos (ἔντιμος) or “value highly” or in Luke 20:17 and Acts 4:11 where the “cornerstone” is the “necessary stone.”

In the other translation project in Khanty, the gospel of Mark has been translated (see here ). Here the translators have used vŏłanga săma (вŏԓаӈа сăма), meaning “important” or “pleasant to the heart” when referring to love.

Source: Ivan Borshchevsky

complete verse (Luke 7:42)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 7:42:

  • Nyongar: “The two men could not return the money so the boss forgave both men all the money (lit.: “stone”). Then which man will love the boss more?'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “From their not being able to pay back their debt, that person who had-been-borrowed-from said: ‘You no longer need to pay your debt.’ So, which from those two had-greater love for the person-to-whom-they-were-indebted?'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because they don’t have anything to pay it with, the person whom-they-owe-the-money-to says, never mind even if they don’t pay it any more (it’s o.k.). Na, as for you, who of the two will love the person very much whom they-had-owed-the-money-to?'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when those two who had borrowed could not pay, the one who had lent them said that they did not need to pay that which they owed him.’ And Jesus said again, ‘As for that person who lent the money, which one of these two who had borrowed from him held him more precious in his breath?'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But because the two of them were not able-to-pay, he cancelled (appreciative particle) their debts. All right then, please tell (me) which of them had the larger love for the one who lent to them.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When there was nothing these two could find with which to pay, what their creditor did was, he just wrote-it-off-as-paid. Well now, which of those two holds him dearest?'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)