zeal, zealous

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated in English as “zeal” or “zealous” is translated in Moken as “great love” (“my zeal” — cewui lak tho: “my great love.”) (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is likewise translated as “love, commitment, enthusiasm” (not jealousy). (Source: Robert Bascom)

In Khasi is is translated with shitrhem which conveys the “idea of loving or devoted enthusiasm.” (Source: B. J. Syiemlieh)

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gal. 2:10)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the readers of the letter).

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.

complete verse (Galatians 2:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Galatians 2:10:

  • Uma: “The only thing that they requested was that we (excl.) not stop helping the poor. As for that, it was what I was already doing.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “They asked only that we (excl.) should help the poor there in Awrusalam, the ones who trust in Isa Almasi. And that also is what I always want to do/be done.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The only command they gave us was that we should help the poverty-stricken believers in Jerusalem. However, I had already decided on this in my breath.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They only instructed us (excl.) that we (excl.) continue to help the poor Jews and that is exactly what I have been putting-forth my efforts (lit. ability) to do.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The only thing they asked us (exc) to do, which also was what I was eager to strive to do, was to not just ignore (the needs of) the poor.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “There was just one word that they told me, that I should not forget to help the poor people. But concerning this word, it wasn’t necessary to remind me, I always endeavor to help the poor.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)