zeal, zealous

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated in English as “zeal” or “zealous” is translated in Moken as “great love” (“my zeal” — cewui lak tho: “my great love.”) (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is likewise translated as “love, commitment, enthusiasm” (not jealousy). (Source: Robert Bascom)

In Khasi is is translated with shitrhem which conveys the “idea of loving or devoted enthusiasm.” (Source: B. J. Syiemlieh)

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (2Cor. 8:17)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the reader of the letter).

Source: SIL International Translation Department (1999)

complete verse (2 Corinthians 8:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 8:17:

  • Uma: “We(excl.) asked him: ‘Do you want us (excl.) to order you (sing.) to go to Korintus to help them organize their gathering of this money?’ He answered: ‘I do want it!’ More than that, from his own desire he already had a heart to want to visit you.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When we (excl.) asked Titus if he could go to you, he immediately said yes. From his own desire he is glad to go and help you.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when we asked him if he wanted to help you, he was very glad to do it. And that’s not all, because he already wanted to help you. And because of this desire of his, he has decided to return there to you.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “I know this is true, because he immediately liked our (excl.) plan to send him there (near addressee) and the truth of it is, he had previously decided to go visit you because of his extreme concern-for-your -interests.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “For he didn’t just promise happily to do what I was asking him to do but rather he really persevered in his intention to go there to you, for it was also his desire too to go there.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When I told him to go and see you, he was very glad to go. Because he himself wanted to go and see you.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)