serving Jesus and the disciples

In Greek and in European languages such as Dutch and English the third person pronoun does not present much difficulty. In Balinese the situation becomes more complicated, for one has at least four pronouns for the third person: two to indicate important and very important persons {dané and ida), one to speak of a person of lower standing but in a familiar manner, and one to speak of such a person in a polite manner (ia and ipun). Dané, the pronoun of the slightly less important person of the third caste, is also in use for people of lower caste who through their official position, age, or ability have a right to be respected or with whom one is trying to ingratiate oneself. (…)

The Greek that is translated as “were contributing to their support out of their private means” had to be differentiated between Jesus and the disciples]. The service accorded Jesus consisted of respect, humility and attachment, which must be expressed in the Balinese word. With regard to the disciples this was not the case. Thus we were forced to translate as, “they used their possessions for the needs of Jesus and his followers, as a tribute of service to Him.”

Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 124ff.

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