The Greek that is translated as “bill” or similar in English is translated by the Panjabi in Persian script as ashtam. “Ashtam is derived from the English term ‘stamped’ (paper). The Indian Stamp Act was introduced in 1899 in order to collect revenue for the government. As a result, a stamped paper came to represent a legal document for any financial transactions. It could be produced in a court of law as a document of evidence. The stamped paper was commonly referred to as ashtam or ashtam paper among villagers in Punjab. The use of ashtam in context signaled the seriousness of the matter to readers and listeners — the shrewd manager was committing an illegal act by telling his master’s debtors to put false amounts on an ashtam paper in order to cause financial loss to his master. Although ashtam was an adapted loanword, its function and legal importance was understood by the people. The translators made a wise decision to use it in the translation.” (Source: Yousaf Sadiq in The Bible Translator 2021, p. 189ff.)

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