he who, whoever

The Greek that is typically translated with a generic expressions such as “he who,” “whoever,” or “if anyone” in English is translated with the plural form (“they”) in Daga. “A literal translation of these conveys the idea that one specific unnamed individual is being dis cussed. Thus, for instance, in John 5:24 ‘he who hears my word and believes in him who sent me has eternal life’ meant in Daga that there was one fortunate individual to whom it applied.”

See also love your neighbor as yourself.

complete verse (Romans 13:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 13:8:

  • Uma: “Let us not be in debt to others. But actually there is always a debt of ours to others. That debt of ours: we must love others. So, let’s not get tired of paying that debt of ours. For if we love others, we fill/fulfil the Lord’s Law.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If you (plural) have a debt, pay it when the day of payment is reached. Even if you no longer have a debt, you have yet a different debt. This debt is your love to your fellows. If you love each other, you follow already the law written by Musa.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Don’t stretch out for a long time your paying your debts to anybody, but rather you must stretch out forever your keeping your companions precious in your breath. Because the person who holds his companions dear, he has already fulfilled the commands of God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “If we have a debt, let us not take-a-long-time to pay it. But our obligation to love-one-another, let’s count that as a debt that has no end. Because the one who loves his companions obeys God’s commands.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “If you are in debt, do not remain thus, pay what you owe. That which you must do always is that you love your fellowman, each one of you. Because the person who loves his fellowman is thus walking like the word which is said in the law how people must walk.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)