There are no lions in Bawm country, so the Bawm Chin translation uses “a tiger with a mane” where the Greek term for “lion” is used and in Sranan Tongo the “roaring lion” in 1 Peter 5:8 is a krasi tigri, an “aggressive tiger.”

In the Kahua culture, lions are not known either so the Kahua translation used “fierce animal.”

In 1 Peter 5:8, the Uripiv translation uses “a hungry shark” instead of a roaring lion.

Sources: David Clark for Bawm Chin and Kahua, Japini 2015, p. 33, for Sranan Tongo, and Ross McKerras for Uripiv)

complete verse (Revelation 5:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 5:5:

  • Uma: “After that, there was one of those twenty-four elders who said to me: ‘Do not weep. Because there is someone who has won! His name: Lion, descendant of Yehuda, descendant of King Daud. He is the one who is able to open the seals and open that letter.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then one of the elders spoke to me, he said, ‘Don’t weep. Look. The leader of demons has already been defeated by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Lion from the tribe of Yuda; he is the descendant of Sultan Da’ud, and he is great/important. Therefore he is worthy to remove the seven seals and to open the roll of paper.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then one of the elders said to Me, ‘Don’t weep because Jesus, the one titled Lion, the descendant of Judah, the descendant of King David, He is the one who has overcome Satan. Therefore He has the right to open the scroll and to remove the seven marks there.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But then one of those-aforementioned leaders said to me, ‘Don’t cry, because look, there is one who is designated Lion (RL Layon) who is a descendant of Juda and also a descendant of David. He has defeated Satanas, so he is able to detach what is adhering/affixed to the paper in order to unroll it.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “One of the elders spoke, saying to me, ‘Don’t cry any longer. Look at this victor who comes from the descendants of Juda, this famous descendant of David. He is the one who was able to be victorious over the evil-ones/spirits, therefore he is the one who is acceptable to remove these seven fastenings and open this rolled up writing.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “One of the twenty-four persons then said to me: ‘No longer cry. Because he who is named the Lion, the relative of Judah and also the relative of King David, it is he who has been victorious. He is the one who is able to break the seven seals which seal the paper.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The name that is transliterated as “David” in English is translated in Spanish Sign Language with the sign signifying a sling and king (referring to 1 Samuel 17:49 and 2 Samuel 5:4). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)

“David” in Spanish Sign Language (source)

The (Protestant) Chinese transliteration of “David” is 大卫 (衛) / Dàwèi which carries an additional meaning of “Great Protector.”

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about David (source: Bible Lands 2012)