Matthew 15:21-28 in Mexican Sign Language

Following is the translation of Matthew 15:21-28 (“The Canaanite Woman’s Faith”) into Mexican Sign Language with glosses (labels for signs) and a back-translation underneath:


© La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

Glosas y retrotraducciones en español (haga clic o pulse aquí)

(v. 21)
glosas: JESÚS SALIR CL:índice-dirigió-de-allí ARRIBAR COLONIA LUGAR TIRO Y SIDÓN, ENTRAR.

trad 1: Jesús salió y llegó a lugares (comunidad, región) llamada Tiro y a Sidón
trad 2: Jesús salió, se digirió a la región (de) Tiro y Sidón; arribó y entró (a la región).

(v. 22)
glosas: ALLÁ MUJER VIVIR COLONIA, SU FAMILIA ORIGINAL ANTEPASADO+++ REGIÓN CANAÁN. ESO
MISMO MUJER, SALIR CL:1-ir-triste MIRA(descubre) JESÚS 2-CLAMA FUERTE: ¡SEÑOR SUYO FAMILIA DAVID TRADICIÓN LO-MISMO JESÚS, MI HIJA MUJER GRAVEMENTE FUERTE SUFRIR HAY ADENTRO DEMONIO, TÚ SENTIR(misericordia) AYUDARME++ FAVOR(ruego)++++.

trad 1: Allí una mujer nativa de esa región cananea salió y al ver a Jesús gritó muy fuerte diciendo “¡¡¡Señor!!! Descendiente del (Rey) David (hijo de David) mi hija está sufriendo tiene un demonio
ayúdame (ten misericordia)”.
trad 2: Una mujer que vivía allí, cuya familia era de origen Cananea, salió (caminando con mucha tristeza) y al verle a Jesús gritó muy fuerte (diciendo) “¡Señor, descendiente del (Rey) David! Mi hija está grave, sufre mucho (lit. fuerte sufrimiento), tiene (un) demonio dentro (de ella). ¡Ten misericordia y ayúdame! ¡Por favor, por favor, por favor, por favor”!

(v. 23)
glosas: JESÚS VOLTEAR-VER(dur) RESPUESTA NADA SILENCIO APAGAR. / ELLOS DISCÍPULOS CL:5-acercarse-1(molesta) OYE JESÚS, ELLA MUJER 2-GRITA++ A-TI INSISTIR NOSOTROS CL:5-5-viendo-molesto PEDIR ROGARON(favor) TÚ DICE DESPÍDELA-VETE++++.

trad 1: Jesús no le dio respuesta alguna, se quedó callado, sus discípulos se acercaron a Jesús y le pidieron que le dijera a la mujer que se fuera pues iba detrás de ellos gritando, dando voces y todo mundo le volteaba a ver.
trad 2: Jesús se volvió para verla, (pero) no le dio respuesta, se quedó callado. Los discípulos, (que estaban molestos) se acercaron y le dijeron “Jesús, esa mujer sigue gritando y te está insistiendo. Nosotros (seguimos) volteando a verla. Te pedimos, por favor dile ‘¡Fuera! ¡Largo! ¡Vete de aquí’”!

(v. 24)
glosas: JESÚS CL:ver-volver-gesto-comprender OYE YO DICE(a mujer): COLONIA PERSONA JUDÍOS COMUNIDAD ELLOS COMO PARECE PARECIDO OVEJAS PERDER CL:5-5-dispersar-perder+++, DIOS MANDAR ENVIAR YO CL:1-venir AYUDAR 2-VEN++ SOLO COMUNIDAD.

trad 1: Jesús desvió la mirada de los discípulos hacia ella y le dijo, “Dios me envió a las ovejas perdidas (pecadores) del pueblo de Israel”.
trad 2: Jesús los vio (a sus discípulos) y volvió su vista (hacia ella y delicadamente le dijo) “Yo te digo, las personas judías son parecidas a ovejas perdidas que se han dispersado. Dios me ha enviado, he venido a ayudarles y a llamarles para que vengan, sola (a esa) comunidad”.

(v. 25)
glosas: PERO ELLA MUJER VER CL:1-acercarse-1-Jesús ARRODILLAR OYE(arriba) ¡SEÑOR POR-FAVOR AYUDARME(socórreme)+++!

trad 1: Entonces la mujer se acercó a Jesús y se hinco frente a Él y le pidió “Señor, ayúdame por favor, ayúdame”.
trad. 2 Pero la mujer quedó mirándolo, se acercó (a Jesús), se arrodilló (y le pidió) “Señor, ayúdame por favor, ayúdame”.

(v. 26)
glosas: JESÚS VER-abajo(misericordia) OYE EJEMPLO MESA NIÑOS CL:sentados-alrededor PAN COMERdur. PAPÁ 1-venir QUITAR PAN TOMAR DAR-MUA PERRO CHICO CL:abrir-boca-morder COMER. ¿TÚ PENSAR BIEN? NO+++//.

trad 1: Jesús le respondió “no es correcto que el pan de los hijos el padre se los quite de la mesa y se los dé a los perros chiquitos”.
trad 2: Jesús la vio (con misericordia y respondió): “Oye, por ejemplo: los niños están sentados alrededor de una mesa comiendo pan y el padre se acerca a ellos y les quita el pan, arrancándolo y dándolo al perrito (o los perritos) para comer. ¿Piensas (que esto sería) bueno? (Pues) no”.

(v. 27)
glosas: MUJER VERarriba “SEÑOR SÍ++, TÚ TIENES RAZÓN. PERO EJEMPLO HOMBRE DUEÑO SUYO PERRO CHICO, MESA NIÑOS CL:sentados-alrededor PAN COMERdur, OCURRIR FALLA PAN CL:comida-caer-al-piso+++, PERRO CHICO CL:perrito-patas-animal-mover(der,izq) MORDER+++ COMER.” Palma(misericordia) //

trad 1: La mujer le dijo “Señor, estando comiendo los hijos en la mesa, si se caen pedazos de pan al piso el perro del dueño de allí come”.
trad 2: La mujer le vio (y le dijo) “Señor, sí, tienes razón. Pero, por ejemplo, los niños están sentados alrededor de la mesa comiendo pan, si por casualidad trozos de pan caen al suelo, el perrito del hombre corre a comérselos” (y ella siguió mirándole, suplicando en silencio misericordia).

(v. 28) glosas: JESÚS VER(admirar) OYE MUJER ¡HUY GRANDE FE! ¡TÚ PEDIR-ME YO HACER!/// MISMO-INSTANTE TIEMPO ALLÍ HIJA DENTRO DEMONIO CL:salir-de-persona-postrada PIRARSE. HIJA gesto-aliviar ALIVIAR(rápido) SANO.

trad 1: Jesús le respondió “mujer tu fe es grande y lo que me pides eso voy a hacer” y en ese instante su hija era liberada del demonio y su hija quedó sana al momento.
trad 2: Jesús la vio (con admiración y le dijo) “Mujer, ¡grande es (tu) fe! He hecho lo que me pediste”. Al mismo tiempo, el demonio (que estaba) dentro de su hija salió y se fue. (De inmediato su) hija se alivió (y quedó) sana.

Glosas preparadas por Alfredo González Yáñez (traductor sordo)
Traducción 1 por Fidel Montemayor Zetina
Traducción 2 por Shelley Dufoe

glosses (v. 21) (click or tap here)

JESUS GO-OUT CL:index-windy-path-from-there ARRIVE AREA/REGION PLACE TYRE AND SIDON, ENTER.

translation: Jesus went out, (headed towards), arrived at and entered the region of Tyre and Sidon.

glosses (v. 22) (click or tap here)

THERE WOMAN LIVE AREA/REGION, POSS-3 FAMILY ORIGINAL ANCESTOR+++ REGION CANAAN. THAT THE-SAME-ONE WOMAN, LEAVE/GO-OUT CL:1-go-sadly SPOT(discover) JESUS SHOUT STRONG: LORD POSS-2 FAMILY DAVID TRADITION/MANY-GENERATIONS THE-SAME-ONE JESUS, POSS-1 CHILD/OFFSPRING FEMALE GRAVELY-ILL STRONG SUFFER HAVE INSIDE DEMON, INDEX-2 FEEL(compassion) YOU-HELP-ME++ PLEASE(pleading)++++.

translation: A woman (who) lived in the area, whose family was of Canaanite origin, went out (walking sadly). She spotted Jesus and loudly shouted “Lord, descendent of (King) David! My daughter is gravely ill and suffering a lot, she has a demon inside (her). Feel compassion and help me! Help me! Please, please, please, please!”

glosses (v. 23) (click or tap here)

JESUS TURN-LOOK(woman, dur) RESPOND NOTHING SILENT SWITCHED-OFF. / INDEX-3pl(left) DISCIPLES CL:5-approach-1(upset) HEY JESUS, INDEX-3 WOMAN 2-SHOUT++ TO-INDEX-2 INSIST INDEX-2pl-excl. CL:5-5-multitud-turn-look(upset) REQUEST PLEASE INDEX-2 TELL-HER GO-AWAY++++.

translation: Jesus turned and observed the woman, without responding, he remained silent. The disciples (who were upset) approached him and said “Jesus, that woman continues to shout and insist. We (keep) turning around to look at her. We ask you to please tell her ‘Go away, leave, get out of here, shoo!’”

glosses (v. 24) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK(disciples, dur)-TURN-LOOK(to-woman) HEY INDEX-1 TELL-YOU(to the woman): COLONY PEOPLE JEWISH COMMUNITY INDEX-3pl LIKE SEEM SIMILAR SHEEP LOST CL:5-5-disperse+++, GOD ORDER SEND INDEX-1 CL:1-come HELP 2-COME-HERE++, ONLY COMMUNITY.

translation: Jesus looked (at his disciples, then turned his gaze towards the woman, and gently told her), “I tell you, Jewish people are like lost sheep that have scattered. God has sent me, I have come to help them and call them to come, only (that) community.”

glosses (v. 25) (click or tap here)

BUT INDEX-3 WOMAN LOOK CL:1-approach-1(Jesus) KNEEL HEY LORD PLEASE YOU-HELP-ME+++!

translation: But the woman looked at him, approached him, knelt (and pleaded) “Lord, please help me, help me, help me!”

glosses (v. 26) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK-DOWN(mercy) HEY EXAMPLE TABLE CHILDREN CL:sitting-in-circle BREAD EATdur. DAD CL:1-come TAKE-AWAY BREAD GRAB GIVE-TO DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL open-mouth-bite EAT. YOU THINK GOOD? NO+++ //.

translation: Jesus looked down at her (with compassion and responded) “For example: the children are sitting around a table eating bread and the dad approaches them and takes away the bread, grabbing it and giving it to the little dog(s) to eat. Do you think (that would be) good? No.”

glosses (v. 27) (click or tap here)

WOMAN LOOK-UP “LORD YES++, INDEX-2 HAVE REASON. BUT EXAMPLE MAN OWNER POSS-3 DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL, TABLE CHILDREN CL:sitting-in-cirle BREAD EATdur, OCCURRENCE FAIL/ERROR BREAD CL:food-fall-to-ground DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL CL:dog-paws-move(right, left) BITE/CHEW+++ EAT.” Palms(mercy) //

translation: The woman looked up (at him and said) “Lord, yes, you’re right. But, for example, the children are sitting around a table eating bread and if scraps happen to fall to the floor, the man’s little dog scurries to eat them,” (and she continued looking at him, silently pleading for mercy).

glosses (v. 28) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK-AT(admiration) HEY WOMAN WOW GREAT/LARGE FAITH! INDEX-2 ASK-ME INDEX-1 DO!/// THE-SAME TIME WAY-OVER-THERE CHILD/OFFSPRING FEMALE INSIDE-OF DEMON CL:come-out-of-prone-person LEAVE-QUICKLY. CHILD/OFFSPRING gesture-feel-better FEEL-BETTER(quickly) HEAL/HEALTHY.

translation : Jesus looked at her (with admiration and told her) “Woman, (you have) great faith! You asked me, and I have done it. At that same moment, over there the demon (that was) inside her daughter quickly came out and left, and her daughter was instantly healed.

English glosses and back-translation by Shelley Dufoe

help (Japanese honorifics)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way to do this is through the usage (or a lack) of an honorific prefix as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

The concept of “help” is translated in the Shinkaiyaku Bible as o-tasuke (お助け), combining “help” (tasuke) with the respectful prefix o-.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

worship

The Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek terms that are often translated as “worship” (also, “kneel down” or “bow down”) are likewise translated in other languages in certain categories, including those based on physical activity, those which incorporate some element of “speaking” or “declaring,” and those which specify some type of mental activity.

Following is a list of (back-) translations (click or tap for details):

  • Javanese: “prostrate oneself before”
  • Malay: “kneel and bow the head”
  • Kaqchikel: “kneel before”
  • Loma (Liberia): “drop oneself beneath God’s foot”
  • Tepeuxila Cuicatec: “wag the tail before God” (using a verb which with an animal subject means “to wag the tail,” but with a human subject)
  • Tzotzil: “join to”
  • Kpelle: “raise up a blessing to God”
  • Kekchí: “praise as your God”
  • Cashibo-Cacataibo: “say one is important”
  • San Blas Kuna: “think of God with the heart”
  • Rincón Zapotec: “have one’s heart go out to God”
  • Tabasco Chontal: “holy-remember” (source of this and all above: Bratcher / Nida)
  • Q’anjob’al: “humble oneself before” (source: Newberry and Kittie Cox in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 91ff. )
  • Alur: rwo: “complete submission, adoration, consecration” (source: F. G. Lasse in The Bible Translator 1956, p. 22ff. )
  • Obolo: itọtọbọ ebum: “express reverence and devotion” (source: Enene Enene)
  • Ngäbere: “cut oneself down before” (“This figure of speech comes from the picture of towering mahoganies in the forest which, under the woodman’s ax, quiver, waver, and then in solemn, thunderous crashing bury their lofty heads in the upstretched arms of the surrounding forest. This is the experience of every true worshiper who sees ‘the Lord, high and lifted up.’ Our own unworthiness brings us low. As the Valientes say, ‘we cut ourselves down before’ His presence. Our heads, which have been carried high in self-confidence, sink lower and lower in worship.)
  • Tzeltal: “end oneself before God.” (“Only by coming to the end of oneself can one truly worship. The animist worships his deities in the hope of receiving corresponding benefits, and some pagans in Christendom think that church attendance is a guarantee of success in this life and good luck in the future. But God has never set a price on worship except the price that we must pay, namely, ‘coming to the end of ourselves.'”) (Source of this and the one above: Nida 1952, p. 163)
  • Folopa: “die under God” (“an idiom that roughly back-translates “dying under God” which means lifting up his name and praising him and to acknowledge by everything one does and thanks that God is superior.”) (Source: Anderson / Moore, p. 202)
  • Chokwe: kuivayila — “rub something on” (“When anyone goes into the presence of a king or other superior, according to native law and custom the inferior gets down on the ground, takes a little earth in the fingers of his right hand, rubs it on his own body, and then claps his hands in homage and the greeting of friendship. It is a token of veneration, of homage, of extreme gratitude for some favor received. It is also a recognition of kingship, lordship, and a prostrating of oneself in its presence. Yet it simply is the applicative form of ‘to rub something on oneself’, this form of the verb giving the value of ‘because of.’ Thus in God’s presence as king and Lord we metaphorically rub dirt on ourselves, thus acknowledging Him for what He really is and what He has done for us.”) (Source: D. B. Long in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 87ff. )

In Luang it is translated with different shades of meaning:

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

complete verse (Matthew 15:25)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 15:25:

  • Uma: “From there, that woman came anyway and bowed down in front of Yesus, saying to him: ‘Lord, please help me.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But when the woman heard this, she came close to Isa and prostrated/bowed down, she said, ‘Sir, help me.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And the women came near, and she knelt down to Jesus saying, ‘Chief, help me.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But that woman, she went nevertheless to kneel in front of Jesus. ‘Lord, please (strongest request) help me,’ she said.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But that woman came up to him anyway, bowed down in front of him and spoke, saying, ‘Pity me truly, Lord!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But the woman approached Jesus and knelt before him. She said: ‘Listen, Lord, help me.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

Lord

The Hebrew adonai in the Old Testament typically refers to God. The shorter adon (and in two cases in the book of Daniel the Aramaic mare [מָרֵא]) is also used to refer to God but more often for concepts like “master,” “owner,” etc. In English Bible translations all of those are translated with “Lord” if they refer to God.

In English Old Testament translations, as in Old Testament translations in many other languages, the use of Lord (or an equivalent term in other languages) is not to be confused with Lord (or the equivalent term with a different typographical display for other languages). While the former translates adonai, adon and mare, the latter is a translation for the tetragrammaton (YHWH) or the Name of God. See tetragrammaton (YHWH) and the article by Andy Warren-Rothlin in Noss / Houser, p. 618ff. for more information.

In the New Testament, the Greek term kurios has at least four different kinds of use:

  • referring to “God,” especially in Old Testament quotations,
  • meaning “master” or “owner,” especially in parables, etc.,
  • as a form of address (see for instance John 4:11: “Sir, you have no bucket”),
  • or, most often, referring to Jesus

In the first and fourth case, it is also translated as “Lord” in English.

Most languages naturally don’t have one word that covers all these meanings. According to Bratcher / Nida, “the alternatives are usually (1) a term which is an honorific title of respect for a high-ranking person and (2) a word meaning ‘boss’, ‘master’, or ‘chief.’ (…) and on the whole it has generally seemed better to employ a word of the second category, in order to emphasize the immediate personal relationship, and then by context to build into the word the prestigeful character, since its very association with Jesus Christ will tend to accomplish this purpose.”

When looking at the following list of back-translations of the terms that translators in the different languages have used for both kurios and adonai to refer to God and Jesus respectively, it might be helpful for English readers to recall the etymology of the English “Lord.” While this term might have gained an exalted meaning in the understanding of many, it actually comes from hlaford or “loaf-ward,” referring to the lord of the castle who was the keeper of the bread (source: Rosin 1956, p. 121).

Click or tap here to see the rest of this insight

Following are some of the solutions that don’t rely on a different typographical display (see above):

  • Navajo: “the one who has charge”
  • Mossi: “the one who has the head” (the leader)
  • Uduk: “chief”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “the one who commands”
  • Kpelle: “person-owner” (a term which may be applied to a chief)
  • Central Pame: “the one who owns us” (or “commands us”)
  • Piro: “the big one” (used commonly of one in authority)
  • San Blas Kuna: “the great one over all” (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida)
  • Guhu-Samane: Soopara (“our Supervisor”) (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.)
  • Balinese: “Venerated-one” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel)
  • Yanesha’: “the one who carries us” (source: Nida 1952, p. 159)
  • Northern Emberá: Dadjirã Boro (“our Head”)
  • Rarotongan: Atu (“master or owner of a property”)
  • Gilbertese: Uea (“a person of high status invested with authority to rule the people”)
  • Rotuman: Gagaja (“village chief”)
  • Samoan: Ali’i (“an important word in the native culture, it derives from the Samoan understanding of lordship based on the local traditions”)
  • Tahitian: Fatu (“owner,” “master”)
  • Tuvalu: Te Aliki (“chief”)
  • Fijian: Liuliu (“leader”) (source for this and six above: Joseph Hong in The Bible Translator 1994, p. 329ff. )
  • Bacama: Həmə miye: “owner of people” (source: David Frank in this blog post )
  • Hopi: “Controller” (source: Walls 2000, p. 139)
  • Iyansi: Mwol. Mwol is traditionally used for the “chief of a group of communities and villages” with legal, temporal, and spiritual authority (versus the “mfum [the term used in other Bantu languages] which is used for the chief of one community of people in one village”). Mwol is also used for twins who are “treated as special children, highly honored, and taken care of like kings and queens.” (Source: Kividi Kikama in Greed / Kruger, p. 396ff.)
  • Ghomala’: Cyəpɔ (“he who is above everyone,” consisting of the verb cyə — to surpass or go beyond — and — referring to people. No human can claim this attribute, no matter what his or her social status or prestige.” (Source: Michel Kenmogne in Theologizing in Context: An Example from the Study of a Ghomala’ Christian Hymn )
  • Binumarien: Karaambaia: “fight-leader” (Source: Oates 1995, p. 255)
  • Warlpiri: Warlaljamarri (owner or possessor of something — for more information tap or click here)

    We have come to rely on another term which emphasizes God’s essential nature as YHWH, namely jukurrarnu (see tetragrammaton (YHWH)). This word is built on the same root jukurr– as is jukurrpa, ‘dreaming.’ Its basic meaning is ‘timelessness’ and it is used to describe physical features of the land which are viewed as always being there. Some speakers view jukurrarnu in terms of ‘history.’ In all Genesis references to YHWH we have used Kaatu Jukurrarnu. In all Mark passages where kurios refers to God and not specifically to Christ we have also used Kaatu Jukurrarnu.

    New Testament references to Christ as kurios are handled differently. At one stage we experimented with the term Watirirririrri which refers to a ceremonial boss of highest rank who has the authority to instigate ceremonies. While adequately conveying the sense of Christ’s authority, there remained potential negative connotations relating to Warlpiri ceremonial life of which we might be unaware.

    Here it is that the Holy Spirit led us to make a chance discovery. Transcribing the personal testimony of the local Warlpiri pastor, I noticed that he described how ‘my Warlaljamarri called and embraced me (to the faith)’. Warlaljamarri is based on the root warlalja which means variously ‘family, possessions, belongingness’. A warlaljamarri is the ‘owner’ or ‘possessor’ of something. While previously being aware of the ‘ownership’ aspect of warlaljamarri, this was the first time I had heard it applied spontaneously and naturally in a fashion which did justice to the entire concept of ‘Lordship’. Thus references to Christ as kurios are now being handled by Warlaljamarri.” (Source: Stephen Swartz, The Bible Translator 1985, p. 415ff. )

  • Mairasi: Onggoao Nem (“Throated One” — “Leader,” “Elder”) or Enggavot Nan (“Above-One”) (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Obolo: Okaan̄-ene (“Owner of person(s)”) (source: Enene Enene)
  • Angami Naga: Niepu (“master,” “owner”)
  • Lotha Naga: Opvui (“owner of house / field / cattle”) — since both “Lord” and YHWH are translated as Opvui there is an understanding that “Opvui Jesus is the same as the Opvui of the Old Testament”
  • Ao Naga: Kibuba (“human master,” “teacher,” “owner of property,” etc.) (source for this and two above: Nitoy Achumi in The Bible Translator 1992 p. 438ff. )
  • Seediq: Tholang, loan word from Min Nan Chinese (the majority language in Taiwan) thâu-lâng (頭儂): “Master” (source: Covell 1998, p. 248)
  • Thai: phra’ phu pen cao (พระผู้เป็นเจ้า) (divine person who is lord) or ong(kh) cao nay (องค์เจ้านาย) (<divine classifier>-lord-boss) (source: Stephen Pattemore)
  • Arabic often uses different terms for adonai or kurios referring to God (al-rabb الرب) and kurios referring to Jesus (al-sayyid الـسـيـد). Al-rabb is also the term traditionally used in Arabic Christian-idiom translations for YHWH, and al-sayyid is an honorary term, similar to English “lord” or “sir” (source: Andy Warren-Rothlin).
  • Tamil also uses different terms for adonai/kurios when referring to God and kurios when referring to Jesus. The former is Karttar கர்த்தர், a Sanskrit-derived term with the original meaning of “creator,” and the latter in Āṇṭavar ஆண்டவர், a Tamil term originally meaning “govern” or “reign” (source: Natarajan Subramani).
  • Burunge: Looimoo: “owner who owns everything” (in the Burunge Bible translation, this term is only used as a reference to Jesus and was originally used to refer to the traditional highest deity — source: Michael Endl in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 48)
  • Aguacateco: Ajcaw ske’j: “the one to whom we belong and who is above us” (source: Rita Peterson in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 49)
  • Konkomba: Tidindaan: “He who is the owner of the land and reigns over the people” (source: Lidorio 2007, p. 66)

Law (2013, p. 97) writes about how the Ancient Greek Septuagint‘s translation of the Hebrew adonai was used by the New Testament writers as a bridge between the Old and New Testaments: “Another case is the use of kurios referring to Jesus. For Yahweh (in English Bibles: ‘the Lord‘), the Septuagint uses kurios. Although the term kurios usually has to do with one’s authority over others, when the New Testament authors use this word from the Septuagint to refer to Jesus, they are making an extraordinary claim: Jesus of Nazareth is to be identified with Yahweh.”

See also Father / Lord.

imperatives (kudasai / Japanese honorifics)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way Japanese show different degree of politeness is through the choice of an imperative construction as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

In these verses, the honorific form kudasai (ください) reflects that the action is called for as a favor for the sake of the beneficiary. This polite kudasai imperative form is often translated as “please” in English. While English employs pure imperatives in most imperative constructions (“Do this!”), Japanese chooses the polite kudasai (“Do this, please.”).

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )