Matthew 15:21-28 in Mexican Sign Language

Following is the translation of Matthew 15:21-28 (“The Canaanite Woman’s Faith”) into Mexican Sign Language with glosses (labels for signs) and a back-translation underneath:


© La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

Glosas y retrotraducciones en español (haga clic o pulse aquí)

(v. 21)
glosas: JESÚS SALIR CL:índice-dirigió-de-allí ARRIBAR COLONIA LUGAR TIRO Y SIDÓN, ENTRAR.

trad 1: Jesús salió y llegó a lugares (comunidad, región) llamada Tiro y a Sidón
trad 2: Jesús salió, se digirió a la región (de) Tiro y Sidón; arribó y entró (a la región).

(v. 22)
glosas: ALLÁ MUJER VIVIR COLONIA, SU FAMILIA ORIGINAL ANTEPASADO+++ REGIÓN CANAÁN. ESO
MISMO MUJER, SALIR CL:1-ir-triste MIRA(descubre) JESÚS 2-CLAMA FUERTE: ¡SEÑOR SUYO FAMILIA DAVID TRADICIÓN LO-MISMO JESÚS, MI HIJA MUJER GRAVEMENTE FUERTE SUFRIR HAY ADENTRO DEMONIO, TÚ SENTIR(misericordia) AYUDARME++ FAVOR(ruego)++++.

trad 1: Allí una mujer nativa de esa región cananea salió y al ver a Jesús gritó muy fuerte diciendo “¡¡¡Señor!!! Descendiente del (Rey) David (hijo de David) mi hija está sufriendo tiene un demonio
ayúdame (ten misericordia)”.
trad 2: Una mujer que vivía allí, cuya familia era de origen Cananea, salió (caminando con mucha tristeza) y al verle a Jesús gritó muy fuerte (diciendo) “¡Señor, descendiente del (Rey) David! Mi hija está grave, sufre mucho (lit. fuerte sufrimiento), tiene (un) demonio dentro (de ella). ¡Ten misericordia y ayúdame! ¡Por favor, por favor, por favor, por favor”!

(v. 23)
glosas: JESÚS VOLTEAR-VER(dur) RESPUESTA NADA SILENCIO APAGAR. / ELLOS DISCÍPULOS CL:5-acercarse-1(molesta) OYE JESÚS, ELLA MUJER 2-GRITA++ A-TI INSISTIR NOSOTROS CL:5-5-viendo-molesto PEDIR ROGARON(favor) TÚ DICE DESPÍDELA-VETE++++.

trad 1: Jesús no le dio respuesta alguna, se quedó callado, sus discípulos se acercaron a Jesús y le pidieron que le dijera a la mujer que se fuera pues iba detrás de ellos gritando, dando voces y todo mundo le volteaba a ver.
trad 2: Jesús se volvió para verla, (pero) no le dio respuesta, se quedó callado. Los discípulos, (que estaban molestos) se acercaron y le dijeron “Jesús, esa mujer sigue gritando y te está insistiendo. Nosotros (seguimos) volteando a verla. Te pedimos, por favor dile ‘¡Fuera! ¡Largo! ¡Vete de aquí’”!

(v. 24)
glosas: JESÚS CL:ver-volver-gesto-comprender OYE YO DICE(a mujer): COLONIA PERSONA JUDÍOS COMUNIDAD ELLOS COMO PARECE PARECIDO OVEJAS PERDER CL:5-5-dispersar-perder+++, DIOS MANDAR ENVIAR YO CL:1-venir AYUDAR 2-VEN++ SOLO COMUNIDAD.

trad 1: Jesús desvió la mirada de los discípulos hacia ella y le dijo, “Dios me envió a las ovejas perdidas (pecadores) del pueblo de Israel”.
trad 2: Jesús los vio (a sus discípulos) y volvió su vista (hacia ella y delicadamente le dijo) “Yo te digo, las personas judías son parecidas a ovejas perdidas que se han dispersado. Dios me ha enviado, he venido a ayudarles y a llamarles para que vengan, sola (a esa) comunidad”.

(v. 25)
glosas: PERO ELLA MUJER VER CL:1-acercarse-1-Jesús ARRODILLAR OYE(arriba) ¡SEÑOR POR-FAVOR AYUDARME(socórreme)+++!

trad 1: Entonces la mujer se acercó a Jesús y se hinco frente a Él y le pidió “Señor, ayúdame por favor, ayúdame”.
trad. 2 Pero la mujer quedó mirándolo, se acercó (a Jesús), se arrodilló (y le pidió) “Señor, ayúdame por favor, ayúdame”.

(v. 26)
glosas: JESÚS VER-abajo(misericordia) OYE EJEMPLO MESA NIÑOS CL:sentados-alrededor PAN COMERdur. PAPÁ 1-venir QUITAR PAN TOMAR DAR-MUA PERRO CHICO CL:abrir-boca-morder COMER. ¿TÚ PENSAR BIEN? NO+++//.

trad 1: Jesús le respondió “no es correcto que el pan de los hijos el padre se los quite de la mesa y se los dé a los perros chiquitos”.
trad 2: Jesús la vio (con misericordia y respondió): “Oye, por ejemplo: los niños están sentados alrededor de una mesa comiendo pan y el padre se acerca a ellos y les quita el pan, arrancándolo y dándolo al perrito (o los perritos) para comer. ¿Piensas (que esto sería) bueno? (Pues) no”.

(v. 27)
glosas: MUJER VERarriba “SEÑOR SÍ++, TÚ TIENES RAZÓN. PERO EJEMPLO HOMBRE DUEÑO SUYO PERRO CHICO, MESA NIÑOS CL:sentados-alrededor PAN COMERdur, OCURRIR FALLA PAN CL:comida-caer-al-piso+++, PERRO CHICO CL:perrito-patas-animal-mover(der,izq) MORDER+++ COMER.” Palma(misericordia) //

trad 1: La mujer le dijo “Señor, estando comiendo los hijos en la mesa, si se caen pedazos de pan al piso el perro del dueño de allí come”.
trad 2: La mujer le vio (y le dijo) “Señor, sí, tienes razón. Pero, por ejemplo, los niños están sentados alrededor de la mesa comiendo pan, si por casualidad trozos de pan caen al suelo, el perrito del hombre corre a comérselos” (y ella siguió mirándole, suplicando en silencio misericordia).

(v. 28) glosas: JESÚS VER(admirar) OYE MUJER ¡HUY GRANDE FE! ¡TÚ PEDIR-ME YO HACER!/// MISMO-INSTANTE TIEMPO ALLÍ HIJA DENTRO DEMONIO CL:salir-de-persona-postrada PIRARSE. HIJA gesto-aliviar ALIVIAR(rápido) SANO.

trad 1: Jesús le respondió “mujer tu fe es grande y lo que me pides eso voy a hacer” y en ese instante su hija era liberada del demonio y su hija quedó sana al momento.
trad 2: Jesús la vio (con admiración y le dijo) “Mujer, ¡grande es (tu) fe! He hecho lo que me pediste”. Al mismo tiempo, el demonio (que estaba) dentro de su hija salió y se fue. (De inmediato su) hija se alivió (y quedó) sana.

Glosas preparadas por Alfredo González Yáñez (traductor sordo)
Traducción 1 por Fidel Montemayor Zetina
Traducción 2 por Shelley Dufoe

glosses (v. 21) (click or tap here)

JESUS GO-OUT CL:index-windy-path-from-there ARRIVE AREA/REGION PLACE TYRE AND SIDON, ENTER.

translation: Jesus went out, (headed towards), arrived at and entered the region of Tyre and Sidon.

glosses (v. 22) (click or tap here)

THERE WOMAN LIVE AREA/REGION, POSS-3 FAMILY ORIGINAL ANCESTOR+++ REGION CANAAN. THAT THE-SAME-ONE WOMAN, LEAVE/GO-OUT CL:1-go-sadly SPOT(discover) JESUS SHOUT STRONG: LORD POSS-2 FAMILY DAVID TRADITION/MANY-GENERATIONS THE-SAME-ONE JESUS, POSS-1 CHILD/OFFSPRING FEMALE GRAVELY-ILL STRONG SUFFER HAVE INSIDE DEMON, INDEX-2 FEEL(compassion) YOU-HELP-ME++ PLEASE(pleading)++++.

translation: A woman (who) lived in the area, whose family was of Canaanite origin, went out (walking sadly). She spotted Jesus and loudly shouted “Lord, descendent of (King) David! My daughter is gravely ill and suffering a lot, she has a demon inside (her). Feel compassion and help me! Help me! Please, please, please, please!”

glosses (v. 23) (click or tap here)

JESUS TURN-LOOK(woman, dur) RESPOND NOTHING SILENT SWITCHED-OFF. / INDEX-3pl(left) DISCIPLES CL:5-approach-1(upset) HEY JESUS, INDEX-3 WOMAN 2-SHOUT++ TO-INDEX-2 INSIST INDEX-2pl-excl. CL:5-5-multitud-turn-look(upset) REQUEST PLEASE INDEX-2 TELL-HER GO-AWAY++++.

translation: Jesus turned and observed the woman, without responding, he remained silent. The disciples (who were upset) approached him and said “Jesus, that woman continues to shout and insist. We (keep) turning around to look at her. We ask you to please tell her ‘Go away, leave, get out of here, shoo!’”

glosses (v. 24) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK(disciples, dur)-TURN-LOOK(to-woman) HEY INDEX-1 TELL-YOU(to the woman): COLONY PEOPLE JEWISH COMMUNITY INDEX-3pl LIKE SEEM SIMILAR SHEEP LOST CL:5-5-disperse+++, GOD ORDER SEND INDEX-1 CL:1-come HELP 2-COME-HERE++, ONLY COMMUNITY.

translation: Jesus looked (at his disciples, then turned his gaze towards the woman, and gently told her), “I tell you, Jewish people are like lost sheep that have scattered. God has sent me, I have come to help them and call them to come, only (that) community.”

glosses (v. 25) (click or tap here)

BUT INDEX-3 WOMAN LOOK CL:1-approach-1(Jesus) KNEEL HEY LORD PLEASE YOU-HELP-ME+++!

translation: But the woman looked at him, approached him, knelt (and pleaded) “Lord, please help me, help me, help me!”

glosses (v. 26) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK-DOWN(mercy) HEY EXAMPLE TABLE CHILDREN CL:sitting-in-circle BREAD EATdur. DAD CL:1-come TAKE-AWAY BREAD GRAB GIVE-TO DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL open-mouth-bite EAT. YOU THINK GOOD? NO+++ //.

translation: Jesus looked down at her (with compassion and responded) “For example: the children are sitting around a table eating bread and the dad approaches them and takes away the bread, grabbing it and giving it to the little dog(s) to eat. Do you think (that would be) good? No.”

glosses (v. 27) (click or tap here)

WOMAN LOOK-UP “LORD YES++, INDEX-2 HAVE REASON. BUT EXAMPLE MAN OWNER POSS-3 DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL, TABLE CHILDREN CL:sitting-in-cirle BREAD EATdur, OCCURRENCE FAIL/ERROR BREAD CL:food-fall-to-ground DOG LITTLE-ANIMAL CL:dog-paws-move(right, left) BITE/CHEW+++ EAT.” Palms(mercy) //

translation: The woman looked up (at him and said) “Lord, yes, you’re right. But, for example, the children are sitting around a table eating bread and if scraps happen to fall to the floor, the man’s little dog scurries to eat them,” (and she continued looking at him, silently pleading for mercy).

glosses (v. 28) (click or tap here)

JESUS LOOK-AT(admiration) HEY WOMAN WOW GREAT/LARGE FAITH! INDEX-2 ASK-ME INDEX-1 DO!/// THE-SAME TIME WAY-OVER-THERE CHILD/OFFSPRING FEMALE INSIDE-OF DEMON CL:come-out-of-prone-person LEAVE-QUICKLY. CHILD/OFFSPRING gesture-feel-better FEEL-BETTER(quickly) HEAL/HEALTHY.

translation : Jesus looked at her (with admiration and told her) “Woman, (you have) great faith! You asked me, and I have done it. At that same moment, over there the demon (that was) inside her daughter quickly came out and left, and her daughter was instantly healed.

English glosses and back-translation by Shelley Dufoe

complete verse (Matthew 15:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 15:21:

  • Uma: “From there Yesus went to the land that is close to the towns of Tirus and Sidon.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then Isa left from there and went to the area of the towns Tiros and Sidon.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus left there because he will go to a village which is near the towns of Tyre and of Sidon.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then (pl.) Jesus left there and they went to the region of Tiro and Sidon.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus and company then left there. They went to a place which was near Tiro and Sidon.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Jesus left there and went to a land in which was the town of Tyre and the town of Sidon.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

Jesus

The Greek Iēsous is “only” a proper name but one with great importance. The following quote by John Ellington (in The Bible Translator 1993, p. 401ff. ) illustrates this:

“In Matthew’s account of the birth of Jesus Christ, Joseph is told that when Mary gives birth to a son ‘you will name him Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins’ (1:21). This name is a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew name [Yeshua (יֵשׁוּעַ) which is a short form of a name meaning] ‘the Lord [Yahweh] saves.’ The name is very significant and is in itself especially dear to Christians around the world. (…) Unquestionably great importance is attached to the name of Jesus by Christians of all persuasions and backgrounds.”

While Iēsous (pronounced: /i.ɛː.suːs/) is transliterated as “Jesus” (pronounced /ˈdʒiːzəs/) in English (but was translated as “Hælend” [the “healing one”] in Old English — see Swain 2019) it is transliterated and pronounced in a large variety of other ways as well, following the different rules of different languages’ orthographies, writing systems and rules of pronunciation. The following is a (partial) list of forms of Jesus in Latin characters: aYeso, Azezi, Cecoc, Chesús, Chi̍i̍sū, Ciisahs, Ciise, Ciisusu, Djesu, Ɛisa, Ƹisa, Eyesu, Gesù, Gesû, Gesü, Ġesù, Ghjesù, Giêsu, ꞌGiê‑ꞌsu, Giê-xu, Gyisɛse, Hesu, Hesús, Hisus, Hisuw, Ià-sŭ, Iesen, Ié:sos, Iesu, Iesui, Iesusɨn, Iesusiva, Ié:sos, Ihu, Iisus, Ijeesu, iJisọsị, Iji̍sɔ̄ɔsi, Iosa, Íosa, Ìosa, İsa, I’sa, Isiso, Ísu, Isus, Isusa, Iisussa, Isuthi, Itota, Îtu, Isuva, Izesu, Izesuq, Jasus, Jeeju, Jeesus, Jeesus, Jeezas, Jehu, Jeisu, Jeju, Jejus, Jeso, Jesoe, Jesosa, Jesoshi, Jesosy, Jesu, Jesû, Jesua, Jesuh, Jesuhs, Jesús, Jésus, Jesúsu, Jethu, Jezed, Jezi, Jézi, Ježiš, Jezu, Jezus, Jézus, Jėzus, Jēzus, Jezusi, Jėzus, Jezuz, Jiijajju, Jíísas, Jiizas, Jíìzọ̀s, Jisas, Jisase, Jisasi, Jisasɨ, Jisasɨ, Jisaso, Jisesi, Jisɛ̀, Jisos, Jisọs, Jisɔs, Jisu, Jiszs, Jizọs, Jizɔs, Jizọsi, Jizọsu, Jòso, Jusu, Jweesus, Ketsutsi, Njises, Sesi, Sisa, Sísa, Sisas, Sīsū, Sizi, Txesusu, uJesu, Ujísɔ̄si, ŵaYesu, Xesosi, ´Xesús, Xesús, Yasu, Ya:su, Ɣaysa, Yecu, Yeeb Sub, Yeeh Suh, Yeesey, Yeeso, Yeesso, Yēēsu, Yēēsu, Yehsu, Yëësu, Yeisu, Yeisuw, Yeshu, Yeso, Yesò, Yëso, Yɛso, ye-su, Yésu, Yêsu, Yẹ́sụ̃, Yésʉs, Yeswa, Yet Sut, Yetut, Yexus, Yezo, Yezu, Yiisu, Yiitju, Yis, Yisɔs, Yisufa, Yitati, Yusu, ‑Yusu, :Yusu’, Zeezi, Zezi, Zezì, Zezwii, Ziizɛ, Zisas, Zîsɛ, Zjezus, Zozi, Zozii, and this (much more incomplete) list with other writings systems: ᔩᓱᓯ, ᒋᓴᔅ, Հիսուս, ᏥᏌ, ኢየሱስ, ያሱስ, ܝܫܘܥ, Ісус, Їисъ, 耶稣, იესო, ईसा, イエス, イイスス, イエスス, 예수, येशू, येशो, ਈਸਾ, ພຣະເຢຊູ, ජේසුස්, যীশু, ଯୀଶୁ, ཡེ་ཤུ་, ‘ঈছা, இயேசு, ಯೇಸು, ພຣະເຢຊູ, ယေရှု, ઇસુ, जेजू, येसु, เยซู, យេស៊ូ, ᱡᱤᱥᱩ, ယေသှု, యేసు, ᤕᤧᤛᤢ᤺ᤴ, އީސާގެފާނު, ਯਿਸੂ, ꕉꖷ ꔤꕢ ꕞ, ⵏ⵿ⵗⵢⵙⴰ, ଜୀସୁ, يَسُوعَ,ㄧㄝㄙㄨ, YE-SU, ꓬꓰ꓿ꓢꓴ, 𖽃𖽡𖾐𖼺𖽹𖾏𖼽𖽔𖾏, ꑳꌠ, ᠶᠡᠰᠦᠰ (note that some of these might not display correctly if your device does not have the correct fonts installed).

Click or tap here to read more.


In some languages the different confessions have selected different transliterations, such as in Belarusian with Isus (Ісус) by the Orthodox and Protestant churches and Yezus (Езус) by the Catholic church, Bulgarian with Iisus (Иисус) by the Orthodox and Isus (Исус) by the Protestant church, Japanese with Iesu (イエス) (Protestant and Catholic) and Iisusu (イイスス) (Orthodox), or Lingala with Yesu (Protestant) or Yezu (Catholic). These differences have come to the forefront especially during the work on interconfessional translations such as one in Lingala where “many hours were spent on a single letter difference” (source: Ellington, p. 401).

In Chinese where transliterations of proper names between the Catholic and Protestant versions typically differ vastly, the Chinese name of Jesus (Yēsū 耶稣) remarkably was never brought into question between and by those two confessions, likely due to its ingenious choice. (Click or tap here to see more).

The proper name of God in the Old Testament, Yahweh (YHWH), is rendered in most Chinese Bible translations as Yēhéhuá 耶和華 — Jehovah. According to Chinese naming conventions, Yēhéhuá could be interpreted as Yē Héhuá, in which would be the family name and Héhuá — “harmonic and radiant” — the given name. In the same manner, 耶 would be the family name of Jesus and 稣 would be his given name. Because in China the children inherit the family name from the father, the sonship of Jesus to God the Father, Jehovah, would be illustrated through this. Though this line of argumentation sounds theologically unsound, it is indeed used effectively in the Chinese church (see Wright 1953, p. 298).

Moreover, the “given name” of 稣 carries the meaning ‘to revive, to rise again’ and seems to point to the resurrected Jesus. (Source: J. Zetzsche in Malek 2002, p. 141ff., see also tetragrammaton (YHWH))

There are different ways that Bible translators have chosen historically and today in how to translate the name of Jesus in predominantly Muslim areas: with a form of the Arabic Isa (عيسى) (which is used for “Jesus” in the Qur’an), the Greek Iēsous, or, like major 20th century Bible translations into Standard Arabic, the Aramaic Yēšūaʿ: Yasua (يَسُوعَ). (Click or tap here to see more.)

Following are languages and language groups that use a form of Isa include the following (note that this list is not complete):

  • Indo-Iranian languages: Persian, Dari, Central Pashto, Southern Pashto all use Eysa (عيسی or عيسىٰ for Southern Pashto), Sindhi uses Eysey (عيسيٰ), Southern Balochi Issa (ایسّا), Central Kurdish (Sorani) and Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji) use Îsa (عیسای and Иса respectively), Turkmen has Isa, and Tajik Isoi (Исои — compare Iso/Исо in the Tajik Qur’an)
  • Turkic languages: Turkish uses İsa, Kazakh, Kumyk, Nogai, Crimean Tatar all have Isa (Иса), Kirghiz has Iysa (Ыйса), Uzbek has Iso (Исо — compare Iiso/Ийсо in the Uzbek Qur’an), Bashkir uses Aaisa (Ғайса), North Azerbaijani İsa, Uighur uses Eysa (ئەيسا), and Kara-Kalpak İysa (Ийса)
  • Caucasian languages: Bezhta and Lezghian use Isa (Иса), Avaric has Aisa (ГІиса), and Chechen Iza (Иза)
  • Various African languages: Somali, a Cushitic language, has Ciise, Kabyle has Ɛisa and Tahaggart Tamahaq has Yeswa (both Berber languages), the Saharan languages Central Kanuri, Manga Kanuri have Isa, the Atlantic-Congo languages Dagbani, Mampruli, and Bimoba use Yisa, and the Chadian Arabic Bible has Isa (عِيسَى)
  • In Indonesian, while most Bible translations had already used Yesus Kristus rather than Isa al Masih, three public holidays used to be described using the term Isa Al Masih. From 2024 on the government is using Yesus Kristus in those holiday names instead (see this article in Christianity Today ).
  • Some languages have additional “TAZI” editions (TAZI stands for “Tawrat, Anbiya, Zabur, and Injil” the “Torah, Prophets, Psalms and Gospel”) of the New Testament that are geared towards Muslim readers where there is also a translation in the same language for non-Muslims. In those editions, Isa is typically used as well (for example, the Khmer TAZI edition uses Isa (អ៊ីសា) rather than the commonly used Yesaou (យេស៊ូ), the Thai edition uses Isa (อีซา) rather than Yesu (เยซู), the Chinese edition uses Ěrsā (尔撒) vs. Yēsū (耶稣), and the English edition also has Isa rather than Jesus.)

In German the name Jesus (pronounced: /ˈjeːzʊs/) is distinguished by its grammatical forms. Into the 20th century the grammatical rules prescribed a unique Greek-Latin declination: Jesus (nominative), Jesu (genitive, dative, vocative), Jesum (accusative), from which today only the genitive case “Jesu” is still in active use. Likewise, in Seediq (Taroko), the morphological treatment of “Jesus” also occupies a special category by not falling under the normal rule of experiencing a vowel reduction when the object-specific suffix an is added “since it was felt that the readers might resent that the name has been changed that drastically.” (Compare Msian for “Moses” (Mosi) as an object, but Yisuan for “Jesus” (Yisu).) (Source: Covell 1998. p. 249)

In Lamba the name ŵaYesu consists of a transliteration Yesu and the prefix ŵa, a plural form for “proper names when addressing and referring to persons in any position of seniority or honor.” While this was avoided in early translations to avoid possible misunderstandings of more than one Jesus, once the church was established it was felt that it was both “safe” and respectful to use the honorific (pl.) prefix. (Source C. M. Doke in The Bible Translator 1958, p. 57ff. )

In virtually all sign languages, “Jesus” is signed with the middle finger of each hand pointing to the palm (or wrist) of the other in succession (signing the nails of the cross). In the context of Bible translation this has been pointed out as theologically problematic since the “semantic connections of the original name Jesus do point towards ‘salvation,’ they do not naturally lead to crucifixion.” (Source: Phil King in Journal of Translation 1 (2020), p. 33ff.)


“Jesus” in German Sign Language (source )

Following is the oldest remaining Ethiopian Orthodox icon of Jesus from the 14th or possibly 13th century (found in the Church of the Saviour of the World in Gurji, Ethiopia). As in many Orthodox icons, Jesus’ right hand forms the Greek letters I-C-X-C for IHCOYC XPICTOC or “Jesus Christ.” Another interpretation of the right hand is that it shows three fingers pointing to the Trinity, while the two other fingers point to Jesus’ two natures.

source (c) Jacques Mercier and Alain Mathieu

Orthodox icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

The style of the following drawing of Jesus by Annie Vallotton is described by the artist as this: “By using few lines the readers fill in the outlines with their imagination and freedom. That is when the drawings begin to communicate.” (see here )

Illustration by Annie Vallotton, copyright by Donald and Patricia Griggs of Griggs Educational Service.

Other visual representation of Jesus in TIPs include several non-Western styles of art: traditional Korean art, traditional Chinese art, modern Chinese abstract art, northern and central Thailand’s popular art, Japanese prints.

See also this devotion on YouVersion .

Honorary are / rare constructs denoting God (“withdraw”)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way Japanese show different degree of politeness is through the usage of an honorific construction where the morphemes rare (られ) or are (され) are affixed on the verb as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017. This is particularly done with verbs that have God as the agent to show a deep sense of reverence. Here, shirizok-are-ru (退かれる) or “withdraw” is used.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

Translation commentary on Matthew 15:21

This verse begins a new episode, and in many languages it is more natural not to have the And. Some translations will have “After that” or “Later,” however.

Jesus is definitely the central character in the narrative, but verse 23 makes clear that he did not leave by himself. One may need to translate “Jesus and his disciples.”

Went away from there and withdrew to may be reduced in some languages to one verb; for example, “went from there to.”

There (Good News Translation “that place”) refers to Gennesaret on the northwest shore of Lake Galilee, where Jesus landed (14.34).

Tyre and Sidon were towns about thirty to fifty miles northwest of Gennesaret on the Mediterranean coast. Sidon was about 25 miles north of Tyre. Matthew does not indicate that Jesus went to either of these towns, but only to their district (Good News Translation “to the territory near”). He could have merely crossed the border and remained on the edge of the region, or he could have gone much farther into the region. Translators can say “the region around Tyre and Sidon” or “the area where the towns of Tyre and Sidon were.” To translate “Jesus … walked the fifty miles to Tyre and Sidon” (Living Bible) is inaccurate and without support in the text.

Quoted with permission from Newman, Barclay M. and Stine, Philip C. A Handbook on the Gospel of Matthew. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1988. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .