complete verse (Matthew 10:24)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 10:24:

  • Uma: “‘A student [school child] is not more honored than his teacher. A slave is not more important than his master.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘The pupil is not greater than his teacher. And the servant is not greater than his master.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “He who causes himself to be tuaght, he should not consider that he is more to be respected than the one who teaches him. And the same way with the servant, because he is not more to be respected than his master.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘There is no one who is studying who is higher/greater than his teacher. Neither is there a slave who is higher/greater than his master.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Consider this, that as for a disciple, of course he isn’t more-important/greater than his teacher. Like that too, a slave isn’t greater than his master.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Do not let the learner think that he will not go through what his teacher goes through. Also for the worker, do not let him think that he will not go through what his boss goes through.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is often translated as “disciple” in English typically follows three types of translation: (1) those which employ a verb ‘to learn’ or ‘to be taught’, (2) those which involve an additional factor of following, or accompaniment, often in the sense of apprenticeship, and (3) those which imply imitation of the teacher.

Following are some examples (click or tap for details):

In Luang several terms with different shades of meaning are being used.

  • For Mark 2:23 and 3:7: maka nwatutu-nwaye’a re — “those that are taught” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ before the resurrection, while Jesus was still on earth teaching them.”)
  • For Acts 9:1 and 9:10: makpesiay — “those who believe.” (“This is the term used for believers and occasionally for the church, but also for referring to the disciples when tracking participants with a view to keeping them clear for the Luang readers. Although Greek has different terms for ‘believers’, ‘brothers’, and ‘church’, only one Luang word can be used in a given episode to avoid confusion. Using three different terms would imply three different sets of participants.”)
  • For Acts 6:1: mak lernohora Yesus wniatutunu-wniaye’eni — “those who follow Jesus’ teaching.” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ after Jesus returned to heaven.”)

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.