he who, whoever

The Greek that is typically translated with a generic expressions such as “he who,” “whoever,” or “if anyone” in English is translated with the plural form (“they”) in Daga. “A literal translation of these conveys the idea that one specific unnamed individual is being dis cussed. Thus, for instance, in John 5:24 ‘he who hears my word and believes in him who sent me has eternal life’ meant in Daga that there was one fortunate individual to whom it applied.”

See also love your neighbor as yourself.

complete verse (Matthew 10:22)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 10:22:

  • Uma: “‘The time will come, all people will hate you because of your following of Me. There will be people who will give their own relatives or children to be killed because of their following of Me. There will also be children who oppose their parents and kill them. But people who are faithful believing in Me until the end [lit., all], they will receive goodness/salvation in the future.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And you, my disciples,’ said Isa, ‘you will be hated by all people because you follow me. But whoever endures until the end of this persecution, certainly has life in heaven without end.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Everyone will be against you because you are my disciples. But he who holds tight his believing in me until the end of those tribulations, he will be given life forever.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “All people, they will hate you because of your being-united to me. But if you persevere in believing, not giving-out until the time-of-your -hardship is done, you will be saved.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “You really will be hated by all people because of your belief in me. But whoever holds-fast to his belief-in me till the end, he certainly will be freed/saved.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Everyone will hate you because you believe in me. But the person who endures whatever suffering he goes through is the one who will save his soul.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

formal pronoun: Jesus addressing his disciples and common people

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Tuvan uses a formal vs. informal 2nd person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Unlike other languages that have this feature, however, the translators of the Tuvan Bible have attempted to be very consistent in using the different forms of address in every case a 2nd person pronoun has to be used in the translation of the biblical text.

As Voinov shows in Pronominal Theology in Translating the Gospels (in: The Bible Translator 2002, p. 210ff.), the choice to use either of the pronouns many times involved theological judgment. While the formal pronoun can signal personal distance or a social/power distance between the speaker and addressee, the informal pronoun can indicate familiarity or social/power equality between speaker and addressee.

Here, Jesus is addressing his disciples, individuals and/or crowds with the formal pronoun, showing respect.

In most Dutch translations, Jesus addresses his disciples and common people with the informal pronoun, whereas they address him with the formal form.