home

The Greek that is translated as “home” in English is translated in Noongar as karlap or “place of fire.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

See also at home and village.

mercy

The Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin terms that are typically translated as “mercy” (or “compassion” or “kindness”) in English are translated in various ways. Bratcher / Nida classify them in (1) those based on the quality of heart, or other psychological center, (2) those which introduce the concept of weeping or extreme sorrow, (3) those which involve willingness to look upon and recognize the condition of others, or (4) those which involve a variety of intense feelings.

While the English mercy originates from the Latin merces, originally “price paid,” Romance languages (Italian, Spanish, Corsican, Catalan) and other Germanic languages (German, Swedish, DanishBarmherzigkeit, barmhärtighet and barmhjertighed, respectively) tend to follow the Latin misericordia, lit. “misery-heart.”

Here are some other (back-) translations:

See also steadfast love.

He gave freedom to those in bondage of evil (image)

“In Thai society, those who are possessed by evil spirits are usually the weak or mentally unstable. This man is shown as freed from his spiritual and physical chains. Even though he is naked Jesus is not ashamed to be close to him.”

Drawing by Sawai Chinnawong who employs northern and central Thailand’s popular distinctive artistic style originally used to depict Buddhist moral principles and other religious themes; explanation by Paul DeNeui. From That Man Who Came to Save Us by Sawai Chinnawong and Paul H. DeNeui, William Carey Library, 2010.

For more images by Sawai Chinnawong in TIPs see here.

Mark 5:1-20 in Russian Sign Language

Following is the translation of Mark 5:1-20 into Russian Sign Language with a back-translation underneath:


Source: Russian Bible Society / Российское Библейское Общество

Jesus and His disciples were traveling in a boat. They came to the other side of the lake. There was a place called Gerasa. There was a place where there were many caves. People who had died were buried there. There was a man there. He was possessed by a demon. The man lived in these caves.

People tried to grab him and tie him up, but he tore all the ropes. They even tried to tie him up with chains. Many times they caught him, tied him up, but still he tore the chains, broke free and ran away. Day and night he walked there among the graves, climbed up the mountain and shouted loudly, and beat himself with stones, he was all scarred.

When Jesus arrived at the shore in a boat, the demon-possessed man saw Jesus, ran up to him, and knelt down before him.

Jesus looked at him and commanded, Demon, get out of this man!

The demon inside the man began to shout angrily, You, Jesus, are the Son of God! What do you want? I beg you before God — don’t torture me!

Jesus said: What is your name?

The demon answered: My name is Legion! It means a great multitude of warriors.

The demon continued: I beg you, if you drive us out of this area, where will we go?

Not far away, on a mountain, a large herd of pigs was grazing.

The demons began to ask Jesus: Permit us to go out and take possession of the pigs!

Jesus allowed it. The demons began to come out of this man and took possession of the pigs. And there were about two thousand pigs. The pigs began to be demonized. And there was a mountain, and all the pigs began to fall off the mountain into the sea and they all sank. The shepherds who were herding the pigs, when they saw that the pigs were drowned, were very frightened. They ran to the city of Gerasa and also to its surrounding villages, they said to the people, Look, look what has happened!

A large crowd gathered, the people went to that place. They saw Jesus and the man who was demon-possessed. He was healed, he became normal, he was sitting quietly, with his clothes on.

The people were frightened and began to ask: Is this the man who was demon-possessed?

Others began to say: Yes, it was him, he was healed. The demons came out of him and entered the pigs, and the pigs fell from the mountain into the sea.

That’s what the witnesses said. The people were frightened and began to ask: Who did it? Jesus?

And they said to Jesus, Don’t come to our land, go away from here!

Jesus turned around and got into the boat to sail on. The man who used to be demon-possessed came to Jesus and begged Him: Take me with you! May I come with you?

Jesus commanded: No! Go home to your family. God has healed you. Go tell all the people what God has done to you, that he has had mercy on you.

The man went around the ten cities, telling what Jesus had done for him, and all the people marveled.

Original Russian back-translation (click or tap here):

Иисус с учениками плыли в лодке. Они пристали к другому берегу. Там был город Гераса. Там было место, где было много пещер. Там хоронили умерших людей. Там был один человек. В него вселился бес. Человек жил с этих пещерах.

Люди пытались его схватить и связать, но он рвал все веревки. Даже цепями его пытались связать. Много раз его ловили, вязали, но все равно он рвал эти цепи, вырывался и убегал. Днем и ночью он ходил там среди могил, забирался на гору и громко кричал, и сам себя бил камнями, был весь израненный.

Вот Иисус причалил на лодке к берегу, сошел на землю, и тут бесноватый увидел Иисуса, подбежал к нему и бросился перед ним на колени.

Иисус посмотрел на него и приказал: Бес, выйдете вон из этого человека!

Бес внутри этого человека стал злобно кричать: Ты, Иисус, Сын Божий! Чего тебе надо? Умоляю тебя перед Богом — не мучь меня!

Иисус сказал: Как твое имя?

Бес ответил: Мое имя — Легион! Оно означает «великое множество воинов».

Бес продолжал: Умоляю тебя, если ты выгонишь нас из этой местности, куда нам деваться?

А недалеко оттуда, на горе, паслось большое стадо свиней.

Бесы стали просить Иисуса: Разреши нам выйти и вселиться в свиней!

Иисус позволил. Бесы начали выходить из этого человека и вселялись в свиней. А свиней было около двух тысяч. Свиньи начали бесноваться. А там была гора, и все свиньи начали срываться с горы в море и все потонули. Пастухи, которые пасли свиней, когда увидели, что свиньи утонули, очень испугались. Они побежали в город Герас, а также в его окрестные деревни, они сказали людям: Посмотрите, посмотрите, что случилось!

Собралась большая толпа, народ пошел к тому месту. Они увидели Иисуса и того человека, который был бесноватым. Он исцелился, стал нормальным, он спокойно сидел, в одежде.

Люди испугались, стали спрашивать: Точно ли это тот человек, который был бесноватым?

Другие стали говорить: Да, это он, он исцелился. Бесы из него вышли и вселились в свиней, и свиньи попадали с горы в море.

Так говорили свидетели. Народ испугался, стали спрашивать: Кто это сделал? Иисус?

И они обратились к Иисусу: Не ходи в наши края, уходи отсюда!

Иисус развернулся и сел в лодку, чтобы плыть дальше. Человек, который раньше был бесноватый, подошел к Иисусу и стал умолять Его:

Возьмите меня с собой! Можно, я пойду с вами?!

Иисус приказал: Нет! Иди домой к своим родным. Бог излечил тебя. Иди, расскажи всем людям, что Бог сделал с тобой, что он помиловал тебя. Этот человек ходил по десяти городам, что совершил Иисус для него, и все люди удивлялись.

Back-translation by Luka Manevich

<< Mark 4:35-41 in Russian Sign Language
Mark 5:21-43 in Russian Sign Language >>

See also Mark 5:1b-5 in Mexican Sign Language and Mark 5:6-20 in Mexican Sign Language.

Mark 5:6-20 in Mexican Sign Language

Following is the translation of Mark 5:6-20 (+ 5:1a and 2a) into Mexican Sign Language with back-translations into Spanish and English underneath:


© La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

Retrotraducciones en español (haga clic o pulse aquí)

Después vino el barco y Jesús salió del barco. El hombre con el demonio adentro vio a Jesús y bajo corriendo hacia él.

Jesús lo miró y expulsó al demonio mientras el hombre bajó corriendo, y él se arrodilló y se postró delante de él.

El demonio adentro de él gritó: “Jesús, tú hijo del Dios superior, ¿para qué viniste a mi? Por favor, dejame, no me maltrates, diselo a Dios.”

Jesus (dijo): “Alto, ¿tú nombre?” El demonio (dijo): “Mi nombre es Legión, muchos demonios.”

“Por favor, que me quede, no me tires al lugar allá por favor.” Vio en los alrededores muchos cerdos que estaban allá presentes. Dijo: “Por favor, tirame en los cerdos.”

Jesús lo permitió: “Sí, vayanse.”

Los demonios adentro del hombre se movían y se fueron. Había más o menos 2000 cerdos, que estaban comiendo pasto, y los demonios caían encima de ellos y la multitud se fue y cayó en el lago, y como no tenían aire, morían.

Unas personas que supervisaban (los cerdos) estaban sorprendidos y corrieron rápidamente a sus casas, gritando mientras corrían y advertiendo: “¡Vengan y vean!” e igual en otro pueblo advertieron: “¡Vengan y vean!”

La gente (pensaban) ¿Qué? y todos fueron allá “¿Qué es, qué es?” Todos vieron a Jesús y vieron al hombre, y ellos sabían que recientemente tenía un demonio adentro y que caminaba gritando, pero ahora lo vieron cambiado, diferente, con ropa normal y sentado tranquilamente, sano en mente.

La gente se espantó y dijo: “¿Cómo es?” Un hombre que supervisó (los cerdos) dijo: “Lo vi con mis propios ojos”, y lo contó a la gente y ellos se espantaron y tenían miedo.

Ellos miraron a Jesús y dijeron: “No te quedes aquí, vete, por favor.”

Jesús subió en el barco y el hombre, el mismo que estaba sentado con él, caminó haciá él y dijo: “Por favor, quiero ir contigo, por favor.”

Jesús (dijo):”Vete a la casa, y cuentalo a tu familia, que has sufrido mucho pero que Dios te vio y tenía compasión y te dio un milagro, vete a la casa.”

El hombre se fue a Decápolis y iba a diferentes lugares, contando (a la gente): “Jesús quitó los demonios, huy era un milagro.” Y todas las personas lo vieron y estaban asombrados.


Then came the boat and Jesus got out. The man with the demon inside saw Jesus and came running down.

Jesus looked at him and threw out the demon while the man came running down, and he knelt and fell down before him.

The demon inside him shouted: “Jesus son of God the exalted, what have you come to me for? Please leave me, tell God not to torture me.”

Jesus (said): “Stop, your name?” The demon (said): “My name is Legion, many demons.”

“Please, let me stay, please don’t throw me in that place over there.” Looking around he saw many pigs that were present in the area and said: “Please throw me in the pigs.”

Jesus gave permission: “Yes, go off.”

The demons inside the man began to move and went off. There were about 2000 pigs and they were eating grass, the demons fell on them and the whole herd went off and fell into the lake, and since they could not get air they died.

Some people that were looking after (the pigs) were shocked and quickly ran home, shouting while they were running and telling people: “Come and see!” In the same way in another village they told people: “Come and see!”

The people (thought) What? and they all went over: “What is it, what is it?” They all saw Jesus and they saw the man, and they knew that until recently he had a demon inside him and walked back and forth shouting, but now they saw him changed, different, with normal clothes on and sitting quietly, sound of mind.

The people were scared and said: “How is this?” and a man who looked after (the pigs) said: ” I saw it with my own eyes” and he told the people (what had happened) and they were scared and afraid.

They looked at Jesus and said: “Don’t stay here, please go away.”

Jesus got into the boat and the man, the same man that had just been sitting beside him, walked over and said: “Please, I want to go with you, please.”

Jesus (said): “Go home and tell your family that you have suffered much but God saw you and felt compassion for you and gave you a miracle, go home.”

The man went off to Decapolis and went to different places, telling (the people): “Jesus took away the demons, wow it was a miracle.” And all the people saw it and they were astonished.

Source: La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

<< Mark 5:1b-5 in Mexican Sign Language
Mark 5:21-43 in Mexican Sign Language >>

See also Mark 5:1-20 in Russian Sign Language.

complete verse (Mark 5:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 5:19:

  • Uma: “But he didn’t permit him, he said to him: ‘Return to your house, tell your fellow-villagers what the Lord God has done for you, and his love to you.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But Isa did not allow him (to come). Isa said to him, ‘Go home to your place. Tell your relatives about the great deed God has done to you and about his mercy/pity to you.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “But Jesus did not permit him to go along with him, but rather he said to him, ‘Go home and tell your relatives the very great things that God has done for you, and his mercy to you.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But Jesus refused, saying, ‘It-would-be-good-instead if (lit. Even-if) you (sing.) went-home to your (sing.) companions to go relate everything that the Lord did in pitying you (sing.).'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But Jesus didn’t want that. What he instead said was, ‘It would probably be good if you go home now to your (pl.) place and tell your companions there all that the Lord did for you and how he had pity on you.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

let / allow (Japanese honorifics)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way to do this is through the usage (or a lack) of an honorific prefix as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

The Hebrew that is translated as “let” or “allow” in English is translated in the Shinkaiyaku Bible as o-yurushi (お許し), combining “allow/permit” (yurushi) with the respectful prefix o-.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

pronoun for "God"

God transcends gender, but most languages are limited to grammatical gender expressed in pronouns. In the case of English, this is traditionally confined to “he” (or in the forms “his,” “him,” and “himself”), “she” (and “her,” “hers,” and “herself”), and “it” (and “its” and “itself”).

Modern Mandarin Chinese, however, offers another possibility. Here, the third-person singular pronoun is always pronounced the same (tā), but it is written differently according to its gender (他 is “he,” 她 is “she,” and 它/牠 is “it” and their respective derivative forms). In each of these characters, the first (or upper) part defines the gender (man, woman, or thing/animal), while the second element gives the clue to its pronunciation.

In 1930, after a full century with dozens of Chinese translations, Bible translator Wang Yuande (王元德) coined a new “godly” pronoun: 祂. Chinese readers immediately knew how to pronounce it: tā. But they also recognized that the first part of that character, signifying something spiritual, clarified that each person of the Trinity has no gender aside from being God.

While the most important Protestant and Catholic Chinese versions respectively have opted not to use 祂, some Bible translations do and it is widely used in hymnals and other Christian materials. Among the translations that use 祂 to refer to “God” were early versions of Lü Zhenzhong’s (呂振中) version (New Testament: 1946, complete Bible: 1970). R.P. Kramers (in The Bible Translator 1956, p. 152ff. ) explains why later versions of Lü’s translation did not continue with this practice: “This new way of writing ‘He,’ however, has created a minor problem of its own: must this polite form be used whenever Jesus is referred to? Lü follows the rule that, wherever Jesus is referred to as a human being, the normal ta (他) is written; where he is referred to as divine, especially after the ascension, the reverential ta (祂) is used.”

In Kouya, Godié, Northern Grebo, Eastern Krahn, Western Krahn, and Guiberoua Béte, all languages of the Kru family in Western Africa, a different kind of systems of pronouns is used (click or tap here to read more):

In that system one kind of pronoun is used for humans (male and female alike) and one for natural elements, non-liquid masses, and some spiritual entities (one other is used for large animals and another one for miscellaneous items). While in these languages the pronoun for spiritual entities used to be employed when referring to God, this has changed into the use of the human pronoun.

Lynell Zogbo (in The Bible Translator 1989, p. 401ff. ) explains in the following way: “From informal discussions with young Christians especially, it would appear that, at least for some people, the experience and/or concepts of Christianity are affecting the choice of pronoun for God. Some people explain that God is no longer ‘far away,’ but is somehow tangible and personal. For these speakers God has shifted over into the human category.”

In Kouya, God (the Father) and Jesus are referred to with the human pronoun ɔ, whereas the Holy Spirit is referred to with a non-human pronoun. (Northern Grebo and Western Krahn make a similar distinction.)

Eddie Arthur, a former Kouya Bible translation consultant, says the following: “We tried to insist that this shouldn’t happen, but the Kouya team members were insistent that the human pronoun for the Spirit would not work.”

In Burmese, the pronoun ko taw (ကိုယ်တော်) is used either as 2nd person (you) or 3rd person (he, him, his) reference. “This term clearly has its root in the religious language in Burmese. No ordinary persons are addressed or known by this pronoun because it is reserved for Buddhist monks, famous religious teachers, and in the case of Christianity, the Trinity.” (Source: Gam Seng Shae in <em>The Bible Translator 2002, p. 202ff. )

In Thai, the pronoun phra`ong (พระองค์) is used, a gender-neutral pronoun which must refer to a previously introduced royal or divine being. Similarly, in Northern Khmer, which is spoken in Thailand, “an honorific divine pronoun” is used for the pronoun referring to the persons of the Trinity (source: David Thomas in The Bible Translator 1993, p. 445 ). In Urak Lawoi’, another language spoken in Thailand, the translation often uses tuhat (ตูฮัด) — “God” — ”as a divine pronoun where Thai has phra’ong even though it’s actually a noun.” (Source for Thai and Urak Lawoi’: Stephen Pattemore)

The English “Contemporary Torah” addresses the question of God and gendered pronouns by mostly avoiding pronouns in the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (unless God is referred to as “lord,” “father,” “king,” or “warrior”). It does that by either using passive constructs (“He gave us” vs. “we were given”), by using the adjective “divine” or by using “God” rather than a pronoun.

Some Protestant English Bibles use a referential capitalized spelling when referring to the persons of the Trinity with “He,” “His,” “Him,” or “Himself.” This includes for instance the New American Standard Bible, but most translations, especially those published in the 21st century, do not. Two other languages where this is also done (in most Bible translations) are the closely related Indonesian and Malay. In both languages this follows the language usage according to the Qur’an, which in turn predicts that usage (see Soesilo in The Bible Translator 1991, p. 442ff. and The Bible Translator 1997, p. 433ff. ).

See also first person pronoun referring to God.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Gender of God .

Translation: Chinese

在现代汉语中,第三人称单数代词的读音都是一样的(tā),但是写法并不一样,取决于性别以及是否有生命,即男性为“他”,女性为“她”,动物、植物和无生命事物为“它”(在香港和台湾的汉语使用,动物则为“牠”)。这些字的部首偏旁表明了性别(男人、女人、动物、无生命事物),而另一偏旁通常旁提示发音。

到1930年为止,基督教新教《圣经》经过整整一百年的翻译已经拥有了十几个译本,当时的一位圣经翻译者王元德新造了一个“神圣的”代词“祂”,偏旁“礻”表示神明。一般汉语读者会立即知道这字的发音是tā,而这个偏旁表示属灵的事物,因此他们明白这个字指出,三位一体的所有位格都没有性别之分,而单单是上帝。

然而,最重要的新教圣经译本(1919年的《和合本》)和天主教圣经译本(1968年的《思高圣经》)都没有采用“祂”;虽然如此,许多其他的圣经译本采用了这个字,另外还广泛出现在赞美诗和其他基督信仰的书刊中。(资料来源:Zetzsche)

《吕振中译本》的几个早期版本也使用“祂”来指称“上帝”;这个译本的《新约》于1946年译成,整部《圣经》于1970年完成。克拉默斯(Kramers)指出:“‘他’的这种新写法(即‘祂’)产生了一个小问题,就是在指称耶稣的时候,是否一律使用这个敬语代词?《吕振中译本》遵循的原则是,在称呼耶稣这个人的时候,用一般的‘他’,而在称呼耶稣神性的时候,特别是升天之后的耶稣,则用尊称‘祂’。”

Translator: Simon Wong