The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches. (Source: Gerrit van Steenbergen)

Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).

In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and two above (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also cross.

complete verse (Mark 15:6)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 15:6:

  • Uma: “Every Paskah festival [lit., Paskah big day], Pilatus usually released a person who was imprisoned, whomever the crowds requested.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na every year, at the time of the Celebration For-Remembering, it was the custom of Pilatus, to release one prisoner, whoever the people requested to be released.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Each year at the Feast of Passing By it was Pilate’s custom to release a prisoner that the people begged for.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The custom of Pilato at each fiesta called Passed-By, he would release one prisoner that the many-people chose.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The governor had made it a custom that at each Fiesta of Passed-by there would be one person he would release from imprisonment, whoever the crowd wanted to ask for.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)