kingdom (of God / heaven) (presence of God's rule)

In the German Gute Nachricht (Good News) translation of 1982, this occurrence of the Greek term which is translated in most English versions of “kingdom (of God or heaven)” is translated with a form of “God establishes his rule” (Gott richtet seine Herrschaft auf) or “God’s rule” (Herrschaft). For an explanation of the differentiated translation in German as well as translation choices in a number of languages, see Kingdom (of God / heaven).

complete verse (Luke 22:29)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:29:

  • Noongar: “And now, my Father gives me power to be King, so I give you the same power.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “So, like my Father gave me power/authority to rule, so also I give you power/authority to rule.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “I have been given authority by my Father God to rule in the future. In the same way I also give you authority to rule.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “My Father God gave me the right to rule in the future, and in the same way also, I give you also the right to rule.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “therefore I will do to you what my Father has done to me. Because he gave me my authority to rule and that indeed also is what I will do to you” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well, in the same way that I have kingship kept in store for me by my Father in heaven, like that indeed you have kingship kept in store by me,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

the last supper (image)

Click here to see the image in higher resolution.

Willy Wiedmann, the artist, commented on this picture: “In spite of some difficulty, and unlike Leonardo da Vinci [see here ] I did not set my last supper in a theatrical scene with Jesus in the center behind an elongated table with all the disciples, with two at each end so that that there are 11 seated behind the table. And not like the panel by Juan de Juanes (1623-79) [see here ] in which the six disciples left and right are very dynamic figures. And also not like Martin Schongauer’s Last Supper [see here ] with a slightly shorter table (also incidentally very similar to Juanes in the attitudes of the figures) and two figures seen from the back in the foreground of the panel. Instead I have given the Master the middle place to the foreground, with his back to us to finally leave the controversial Jesus-existential questions unanswered. Slightly symbolically it means that he is leaving his world. The iris color is meant to transfer the rainbow to Jesus, that God once linked to Noah (my kingdom is not of this world). I attempted to present answers that correspond to the characters of each individual.”

Image and text taken from the Wiedmann Bible. For more information about the images and ways to adopt them, see here .

For other images of Willy Wiedmann paintings in TIPs, see here.


Painting by Wang Suda 王肅達 (1910-1963),
Copyright by the Catholic University Peking, China.

Text under painting translated from Literary Chinese into English:

Beginning of the Holy Communion
You have this as food and this is my body.

Image taken from Chinese Christian Posters . For more information on the “Ars Sacra Pekinensis” school of art, see this article , for other artworks of that school in TIPs, see here.

the last supper (icon)

Following is a contemporary Ukrainian Orthodox icon of the last supper by Ulyana Tomkevych.


Orthodox Icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

formal pronoun: Jesus addressing his disciples and common people

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Tuvan uses a formal vs. informal 2nd person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Unlike other languages that have this feature, however, the translators of the Tuvan Bible have attempted to be very consistent in using the different forms of address in every case a 2nd person pronoun has to be used in the translation of the biblical text.

As Voinov shows in Pronominal Theology in Translating the Gospels (in: The Bible Translator 2002, p. 210ff.), the choice to use either of the pronouns many times involved theological judgment. While the formal pronoun can signal personal distance or a social/power distance between the speaker and addressee, the informal pronoun can indicate familiarity or social/power equality between speaker and addressee.

Here, Jesus is addressing his disciples, individuals and/or crowds with the formal pronoun, showing respect.

In most Dutch translations, Jesus addresses his disciples and common people with the informal pronoun, whereas they address him with the formal form.

Translation commentary on Luke 22:29 – 22:30


kagō diatithemai humin … basileian ‘and I assign to you dominion.’ kagō means here ‘I on my part.’ basileian is object of both diatithemai and dietheto and has in both cases the same general and abstract meaning, i.e. ‘dominion,’ ‘royal power.’

diatithemai ‘to ordain,’ ‘to decree,’ ‘to assign.’

kathōs dietheto moi ho patēr mou ‘just as my father assigned (dominion) to me.’

(V. 30) hina esthēte kai pinēte epi tēs trapezēs mou ‘in order that you may eat and drink at my table,’ i.e. that you have fellowship with me at the Messianic banquet, cf. on 5.30. The clause indicates the intended result of the assigning of the royal power to the disciples: they will reign in fellowship with Christ in his kingdom.

en tē basileia mou ‘in my kingdom,’ i.e. ‘when my Messianic kingdom has come.’

kai kathēsesthe epi thronōn ‘and you will sit on thrones,’ syntactically no longer dependent upon hina and describing, together with what follows, the situation in which the royal power will be exercised.

tas dōdeka phulas krinontes tou Israēl ‘judging the twelve tribes of Israel,’ referring to the eschatological judgment. phulē also 2.36.


One may have to render v. 29 in two sentences, e.g. ‘my Father appointed a kingdom for me; I on my part appoint (it) for you in the same way,’ or to keep to the clause order of the Greek, e.g. ‘I appoint a kingdom for you in the same way as my Father (on his part) appointed it for me,’ ‘I determine that you receive kingship, just as the Father granted it to me’ (cf. Balinese, where an honorific term for God’s act is required).

My Father, cf. on 2.49.

Appointed a kingdom for me, i.e. caused me to be king/ruler, or, to have royal power/rule/dominion, cf. “made me King” (The Four Gospels – a New Translation), ‘gave me to rule’ (Chol), ‘gave me the right (or, the position) to rule’ (cf. Good News Translation, Otomi).

I appoint for you will require similar adjustments, ‘I cause you to be king,’ etc., or, ‘the same (or, that also) I cause you to be,’ etc.

(V. 30) That you may eat …, or as a new sentence, ‘(so/then) you shall eat….’

Eat and drink at my table, or, ‘eat and drink at-the-same-table (or, from the-same-dish) with me’ (Bahasa Indonesia RC, Malay), and cf. on “eat (and drink) with” in 7.36.

Sit on thrones. For the noun see on 1.32. If a literal rendering is impossible or culturally irrelevant, one may say, ‘to reign in splendour.’

Twelve tribes of Israel, cf. on 2.36; in Huixtec one must say, ‘twelve groups of our (inclus.) people, we who are descendants of (the patriarch) Israel.’

Quoted with permission from Reiling, J. and Swellengrebel, J.L. A Handbook on the Gospel of Luke. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1971. For this and other handbooks for translators see here . Make sure to also consult the Handbook on the Gospel of Mark for parallel or similar verses.