In Chechen there is no word for the term that is translated with “hate” in English that is appropriate to this context so the sentence has to be restructured to say, “if anyone does not esteem me more than…”.

This is also the case in Kalmyk where the sentence has to be restructured to say, “if anyone does not love me more than…”.

See also who hate us.

complete verse (Luke 14:26)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 14:26:

  • Nyongar: “‘A person coming to me, he truly cannot become a disciple of mine, only if he loves me more than his father and mother, his wife and children, his brother and sister, and also loves me more than himself.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “‘The person who wants to follow me, but his love for me is not greater than his love for his mother, father, wife, child, relative, or even his own body/self, he cannot become my follower.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘If a person comes and wants to follow me, his love for me should be greater than his love for his mother and father, and to his wife and children and to his brothers and sisters. And even his love for himself must not be greater than his love for me. If it is not like that he cannot be my disciple.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “‘That person who wants to be my disciple, but the thing which is big in his breath are his parents, his wife, his children, his siblings, and if not that, the thing which is big in his breath is his own body, then he cannot really be my disciple.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Whoever wants to join me to become my disciple, it is necessary that his love for me be larger than his love for his father and mother, his spouse and children, his relatives, and even himself, because if not, he cannot be my disciple.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘The one who wants to submit to me, he isn’t possible/acceptable as being my disciple as long as his holding-dear of me is exceeded by his holding-dear of his parents, spouse, children, siblings, and even his own life for he values them more.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The Greek that is often translated as “disciple” in English typically follows three types of translation: (1) those which employ a verb ‘to learn’ or ‘to be taught’, (2) those which involve an additional factor of following, or accompaniment, often in the sense of apprenticeship, and (3) those which imply imitation of the teacher.

Following are some examples (click or tap for details):

In Luang several terms with different shades of meaning are being used.

  • For Mark 2:23 and 3:7: maka nwatutu-nwaye’a re — “those that are taught” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ before the resurrection, while Jesus was still on earth teaching them.”)
  • For Acts 9:1 and 9:10: makpesiay — “those who believe.” (“This is the term used for believers and occasionally for the church, but also for referring to the disciples when tracking participants with a view to keeping them clear for the Luang readers. Although Greek has different terms for ‘believers’, ‘brothers’, and ‘church’, only one Luang word can be used in a given episode to avoid confusion. Using three different terms would imply three different sets of participants.”)
  • For Acts 6:1: mak lernohora Yesus wniatutunu-wniaye’eni — “those who follow Jesus’ teaching.” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ after Jesus returned to heaven.”)

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.