The Greek and Latin that is translated as “resurrection” in English is translated in Chicahuaxtla Triqui and Pohnpeian as “live-up” (i.e. return to life) (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Iloko as panagungar: a term that stems “from the word ‘agungar,’ an agricultural term used to describe the coming back to life of a plant which was wilting but which has been watered by the farmer, or of a bulb which was apparently dead but grows again.” (Source: G. Henry Waterman in The Bible Translator 1960, p. 24ff. )

In Estado de México Otomi, it is translated as “people will be raised from the dead,” in Teutila Cuicatec as “the dead having to come to life again,” in San Mateo del Mar Huave as “arose from the grave” (source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.), and in Kriol as gidap laibala brom dedbala or “get up alive from the dead” (source: Sam Freney in this article .)

See also resurrect / rise again (Jesus).

complete verse (Luke 14:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 14:14:

  • Noongar: “and God will bless you, because they cannot give you what you gave them. God will repay you on the day when the good people rise from death.'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “If we do thus, the Lord God will bless us, because people like that are not able to return our behavior. The Lord God will return our behavior on Kiama Day, when he makes-live again people who are straight in his sight.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If you do this you will be very happy/glad. For they are not able to repay/reward you. God will be the one repaying you in the last day (meaning: after death) when the straight people are made alive again.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And if this is what you will do, you will be very happy. Because they cannot in turn invite you, and they cannot pay back to you the good which you did to them, and God will be the one to pay you back with a good situation in the future, when the people whose actions, whose customs are good, are raised from the dead.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “and you (sing.) will be fortunate. Because even though they will not be able-to-repay you (sing.), you (sing.) will be rewarded nevertheless, because God will repay (you) on the day that good people come-to-life again.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Of course there’s nothing with which they can reward you. That’s why you can be very happy, for God is the one who will reward you, when the people who are straight/righteous in his sight will be made alive again by him.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

righteous, righteousness

The Greek, Hebrew, and Latin terms that are translated in English mostly as “righteous” as an adjective or personified noun or “righteousness” (also as “justice”) are most commonly expressed with concept of “straightness,” though this may be expressed in a number of ways. (Click or tap here to see the details)

Following is a list of (back-) translations of various languages:

  • Bambara, Southern Bobo Madaré, Chokwe (ululi), Amganad Ifugao, Chol, Eastern Maninkakan, Toraja-Sa’dan, Pamona, Batak Toba, Bilua, Tiv: “be straight”
  • Laka: “follow the straight way” or “to straight-straight” (a reduplicated form for emphasis)
  • Highland Puebla Nahuatl, Kekchí, Muna: “have a straight heart”
  • Kipsigis: “do the truth”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “do according to the truth”
  • Huautla Mazatec: “have truth”
  • Yine: “fulfill what one should do”
  • Indonesian: “be true”
  • Navajo: “do just so”
  • Anuak: “do as it should be”
  • Mossi: “have a white stomach” (see also happiness / joy)
  • Nuer: “way of right” (“there is a complex concept of “right” vs. ‘left’ in Nuer where ‘right’ indicates that which is masculine, strong, good, and moral, and ‘left’ denotes what is feminine, weak, and sinful (a strictly masculine viewpoint!) The ‘way of right’ is therefore righteousness, but of course women may also attain this way, for the opposition is more classificatory than descriptive.”) (This and all above from Bratcher / Nida except for Bilua: Carl Gross; Tiv: Rob Koops; Muna: René van den Berg)
  • Central Subanen: “wise-good” (source: Robert Brichoux in OPTAT 1988/2, p. 80ff. )
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “live well”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “goodness before the face of God” (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl: “the result of heart-straightening” (source: Nida 1947, p. 224)
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “entirely good” (when referred to God), “do good” or “not be a debtor as God sees one” (when referred to people)
  • Carib: “level”
  • Tzotzil: “straight-hearted”
  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “right and straight”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “walk straight” (source for this and four previous: John Beekman in Notes on Translation November 1964, p. 1-22)
  • Aari: The Pauline word for “righteous” is generally rendered by “makes one without sin” in the Aari, sometimes “before God” is added for clarity. (Source: Loren Bliese)
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “having sin taken away” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 144)
  • Nyamwezi: wa lole: “just” or “someone who follows the law of God” (source: Pioneer Bible Translators, project-specific translation notes in Paratext)
  • Venda: “nothing wrong, OK” (Source: J.A. van Roy in The Bible Translator 1972, p. 418ff. )
  • Ekari: maakodo bokouto or “enormous truth” (the same word that is also used for “truth“; bokouto — “enormous” — is being used as an attribute for abstract nouns to denote that they are of God [see also here]; source: Marion Doble in The Bible Translator 1963, p. 37ff. ).
  • Guhu-Samane: pobi or “right” (also: “right (side),” “(legal) right,” “straightness,” “correction,” “south,” “possession,” “pertinence,” “kingdom,” “fame,” “information,” or “speech” — “According to [Guhu-Samane] thinking there is a common core of meaning among all these glosses. Even from an English point of view the first five can be seen to be closely related, simply because of their similarity in English. However, from that point the nuances of meaning are not so apparent. They relate in some such a fashion as this: As one faces the morning sun, south lies to the right hand (as north lies to the left); then at one’s right hand are his possessions and whatever pertains to him; thus, a rich man’s many possessions and scope of power and influence is his kingdom; so, the rich and other important people encounter fame; and all of this spreads as information and forms most of the framework of the people’s speech.”) (Source: Ernest Richert in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 11ff.)

See also respectable, righteous, righteous (person), and She is more in the right(eous) than I.

Translation commentary on Luke 14:13 – 14:14


all’ hotan dochēn poiēs ‘but when you give an entertainment.’ For dochē cf. on 5.29. Here it takes up in a general way ariston and deipnon (v. 12).

kalei ptōchous, anapeirous, chōlous, tuphlous ‘invite the poor, the cripple, the lame, the blind,’ not intended as an exhaustive enumeration but as illustration of explicit or implicit social handicaps. For ptōchos cf. on 4.18. For chōlos cf. on 7.22.

anapeiros (also v. 21) ‘crippled,’ ‘cripple’ (subst.).

(V. 14) kai makarios esē ‘and you will be blessed,’ scil. if you do that. For makarios cf. on 1.45.

hoti ouk echousin antapodounai soi ‘because they have not (the means) to repay you,’ i.e. ‘they cannot repay you.’

antapodidōmi ‘to repay,’ ‘to reward’ (cf. antapodoma in v. 12).

antapodothēsetai gar soi lit. ‘for it will be repaid to you,’ i.e. ‘for you will be repaid.’ The agent is God.

en tē anastasei tōn dikaiōn ‘at the resurrection of the righteous, or, the just.’ For anastasis cf. on 2.34.


For the blind see 4.18.

Maimed, or, ‘mutilated,’ covering an area of reference in which lame (see 7.22) is included; also rendered, ‘having a bodily defect’ (Javanese), ‘deformed’ (Toraja-Sa’dan), ‘missing a limb’ (Balinese).

(V. 14) You will be blessed, or, ‘happy,’ see 1.45.

Because they cannot repay you, or, ‘they cannot do-to you things that you have done-to them’ (Kituba), expresses the reason of the preceding statement in negative terms, the next clause does the same in positive terms: what the poor etc. are not able to do now God will do in a more splendid way at the resurrection; hence, the two clauses are sometimes more closely connected, e.g. ‘because they cannot repay you, but you will be repaid (cf. New English Bible, Phillips, Malay, Batak Toba), or, but God will repay you.’ Since at its third occurrence to repay has another nuance of meaning, pointing beyond the human sphere, a different rendering may be required.

At the resurrection of the just, or, ‘when the righteous arise from death’ (Thai 1967) ‘when those people who righteous they-will live-up (i.e. return to life)’ (Trukese, Pohnpeian). The just, or, ‘the just/righteous ones,’ or, sometimes, ‘the righteous dead ones,’ ‘the dead ones that have been righteous’; and cf. the references on “righteous” in 1.6.

Quoted with permission from Reiling, J. and Swellengrebel, J.L. A Handbook on the Gospel of Luke. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1971. For this and other handbooks for translators see here . Make sure to also consult the Handbook on the Gospel of Mark for parallel or similar verses.