The Greek that is translated as “angel” in English versions is translated in many ways:

  • Pintupi-Luritja: ngaṉka ngurrara: “one who belongs in the sky” (source: Ken Hansen quoted in Steven 1984a, p. 116.)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “word-carriers from heaven”
  • Tetela, Kpelle, Balinese, and Chinese: “heavenly messengers”
  • Shilluk: “spirit messengers”
  • Mashco Piro: “messengers of God”
  • Batak Toba: “envoys, messengers”
  • Navajo: “holy servants” (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida 1961)
  • Central Mazahua: “God’s workers” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.)
  • Tonga (Zambia): “messenger from heaven” (source: Loewen 1980, p. 107)
  • Saramaccan: basia u Masa Gaangadu köndë or “messenger from God’s country” (source: Jabini 2015, p. 86)
  • Mairasi: atatnyev nyaa or “sent-one” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Shipibo-Conibo; “word bringer” (source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Apali: “God’s one with talk from the head” (“basically God’s messenger since head refers to any leader’s talk”) (source: Martha Wade)
  • Michoacán Nahuatl: “clean helper of God” (source: B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also angel (Acts 12:15).

complete verse (Galatians 3:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of Galatians 3:19:

  • Uma: “So, perhaps a person will say like this: "If it’s like that, then just what is [emphatic] the purpose of the Law of Musa?" God gave the Law of Musa at a later time than his promise to Abraham, and his purpose was to make-clear to mankind that they sin transgressing his will. God’s purpose was for mankind to follow that Law of Musa until the arrival of the descendant of Abraham that was foretold in the promise of God long ago, that is Kristus. God charged his angel to deliver his Law to Musa, and that Musa became the middleman who delivered the Law of the Lord to the crowd/people.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then, if it is like that, what is the use of the law? I tell you, the law was simply added by God so that the people would know as to what their sins are. And God wanted that this law would be followed/obeyed as long as that descendant of Ibrahim, Isa Almasi had not yet come here. The law was given by God to the angels who were told to give it to Musa. Then Musa also gave it to the Yahudi.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it that’s the case, what is the value of the Law? I’ll tell you what it’s value is. God added the Law so that He might explain to us what evil behavior is and it is His desire that the observance of the Law lasts until only the arrival of the descendant of Abraham, who is Christ who is the one to whom God made the promise. God commanded His angels to come from Heaven so that they might give the Law to Moses. And as for Moses, he became an in-between chief (a mediator) because he also gave the Law to the people.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “What then is the function/use of the law? Why did God cause-it-to-follow what he promised? God gave his law in order that people would come-to-know that they were consistently-sinful because of their breaking that law. His purpose was that the law would continue until the coming of Abraham’s descendant Cristo whom his promise was talking about. It can be seen that what he promised is more-valuable than the law, because as for the law, there were angels whom God sent to tell it to Moses, and-then he would tell it to the collective-people,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well since it’s like that, why did God give his laws? What do they achieve? Well, it’s this, he made known these laws of his so that people would be enlightened concerning just what sins they were doing in their lives. People were in-subjection-to these laws until that descendant of Abraham would arrive, in whom was the fulfillment of the promise. When God gave his laws, angels and Moises were like his go-betweens.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Then why is it that there was the law? God gave the law in order for the people to know about the sins they did. And the law was in force until there was born the descendant of Abraham who was destined to do what was promised. The law was spoken from the angels and then Moses told the people what the angels said.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)