The Greek that is translated as “motion (to speak)” or “make a sign (to speak)” in English is translated Isthmus Mixe translated as “winked with both eye” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.).
See also motion to.
The Greek that is translated as “keep (your) courage,” “take heart,” or “be cheerful” in English is translated in Bulu as “help the heart” and in Yamba as “to cause the heart to rest.” (Source: W. Reyburn in The Bible Translator 1959, p. 1ff.)
Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 24:10:
- Uma: “After that, the Governor motioned to Paulus to speak. Paulus spoke, he said: ‘I am really glad, because I have been given the opportunity to say my defense in front of Father Governor. Because I know that for years-and-years Governor has been the decider/judge in our village/nation.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
- Yakan: “Then the governor made a sign to Paul telling him to speak, and he spoke now. He said to the governor, ‘I am happy to speak for myself here before you, Sir, because I know that for a long time now you have enforced (lit. cause-to-walk) the law here in our (excl.) tribe.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
- Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then the governor motioned to Paul, which was a sign that he was allowed to speak. And Paul said to him, ‘I know that you have been in charge of our province here for a long time. That’s why I am not hesitant to make clear before you my explanation.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
- Kankanaey: “Then the governor gestured to Pablo to take-his-turn to speak. And this was his answer. ‘Sir Governor, I know that you (singular) have been ruling-over and judging us (excl.) Jews for a long-time, so I am happy to answer what these have-accused-me -of.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
- Tagbanwa: “The governor then motioned to Pablo that he speak next. Therefore Pablo spoke answering that accusation of theirs. He said, ‘Respected Governor, I know that for a long time now you have been a judge here in this land. That’s why I don’t hold back from speaking concerning myself, which is my defence.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Spanish uses a formal vs. informal second-person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Spanish Bibles all use only the informal second-person pronoun (tú), with the exception of Dios Habla Hoy (DHH) (third edition: 1996) which also uses the formal pronoun (usted). In the referenced verses, the formal form is used.
Sources and for more information: P. Ellingworth in The Bible Translator 2002, p. 143ff. and R. Ross in The Bible Translator 1993, p. 217ff.
See also the use of the formal vs. the informal pronoun in the Gospels in Tuvan.