Paul (icon)

Following is a Georgian Orthodox icon of Paul the Apostle from the 14th century (located in the Art Museum of Georgia, Tbilisi).

Orthodox Icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

See also Paul.


The term that is transliterated as “Paul” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that signifies the many letters he wrote. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)

“Paul” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

In Spanish Sign Language it is translated with a sign depicting putting away a sword, referring to his conversion from a persecutor of Christians to a Christian leader. (Source: Steve Parkhurst)

“Paul (and Saul)” in Spanish Sign Language, source: Sociedad Bíblica de España

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about Paul (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also Paul (icon).

complete verse (Acts 23:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 23:18:

  • Uma: “He indeed took him to the head and said: ‘That Paulus who is jailed over there [out of sight], asked me to bring this child to Head. He has something to tell you (sing.).'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The lieutenant then took the man to the colonel and he said, ‘I was called by Paul, the prisoner, and he told me to bring this young man to you because he wants ko’ to tell you something.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And the soldier, he took the young man to the captain and he said, ‘The prisoner Paul called me and he said to me that I should bring this young man here to you because he has something to say to you.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So he took him there and said, ‘The prisoner Pablo, he called me, and he told me to lead this young-man to you (sing.), because there is reportedly something he will tell.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “That captain took the nephew of Pablo to their highest-ranking-officer. When he arrived, he said, ‘I was called by that prisoner Pablo and he said to me that if possible/acceptable I would bring here to you this child for there is something he said, that he wants to tell you.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

formal 2nd person pronoun (Spanish)

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Spanish uses a formal vs. informal second-person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Spanish Bibles all use only the informal second-person pronoun (), with the exception of Dios Habla Hoy (third edition: 1996) which also uses the formal pronoun (usted). In the referenced verses, the formal form is used.

Sources and for more information: P. Ellingworth in The Bible Translator 2002, p. 143ff. and R. Ross in The Bible Translator 1993, p. 217ff.

See also the use of the formal vs. the informal pronoun in the Gospels in Tuvan.

Translation commentary on Acts 23:18

The prisoner Paul is not contradictory to what was said in 22.30. Whatever was indicated there, whether Paul was released from his chains or released from prison, he was not given absolute freedom in any case.

Quoted with permission from Newman, Barclay M. and Nida, Eugene A. A Handbook on The Acts of the Apostles. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1972. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .