The Greek that is translated as “resurrection” in English is translated in Chicahuaxtla Triqui and Pohnpeian as “live-up” (i.e. return to life) (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Iloko as panagungar: a term that stems “from the word ‘agungar,’ an agricultural term used to describe the coming back to life of a plant which was wilting but which has been watered by the farmer, or of a bulb which was apparently dead but grows again.” (Source: G. Henry Waterman in The Bible Translator 1960, p. 24ff. )

In Estado de México Otomi, it is translated as “people will be raised from the dead,” in Teutila Cuicatec as “the dead having to come to life again,” in San Mateo del Mar Huave as “arose from the grave” (source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.), and in Kriol as gidap laibala brom dedbala or “get up alive from the dead” (source: Sam Freney in this article .)


The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “witness” in English is translated as “truly have seen” in Highland Popoluca, as “telling the truth regarding something” (Eastern Highland Otomi), as “know something” in Lalana Chinantec, as “verily know something to be the truth” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, as “we ourselves saw this,” in Desano, as “tell the truth about something” in Eastern Highland Otomi, as “know something is true because of seeing it” in Teutila Cuicatec. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Acts 1:22)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the attendees of the meeting who were not disciples).

In Huautla Mazatec, however, the translators selected the inclusive pronoun.

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.

complete verse (Acts 1:22)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 1:22:

  • Uma: “From there, Petrus continued his speech, he said: ‘Relatives, that is why there must be one from among us whom we choose to become a witness along with us, witnessing to the living again of Lord Yesus. That person whom we choose, must be one who was usually with us from-the-start when Lord Yesus walked around with us, beginning with the work of Yohanes the Baptizer until the lifting-up of our Lord from our midst.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘That’s why,’ Petros said, ‘another one must be titled/given the rank caused-to-be-together-with us (incl.) in witnessing/testifying that Isa our (incl.) Leader is now alive again. He must be a person who has been together with us (incl.) during the time we (incl.) journeyed with Isa, starting when Yahiya bathed until the day Isa was caused to ascend to heaven.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Therefore,’ said Peter, ‘it is necessary for one to be chosen who can be added to us eleven apostles. It is necessary that he was one of our companions in our going around with our (incl.) Lord Jesus beginning with John’s baptizing until Jesus was taken up to heaven, because it is necessary that he is able to join in with us in testifying about the resurrection of Jesus,’ said Peter.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So it-is-necessary that we choose a replacement for Judas so-that someone will join us (excl.) in confirming/verifying the living again of the Lord Jesus. The one we choose must have been-accompanying us (excl.) continuously when Jesus was with us, starting-from when-Juan -was-baptizing until Jesus’ being-raised to heaven.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “from the baptizing by Juan till Jesus returned to heaven, for he will be included in our (excl.) number who are testifiers of the returning to life again of this Jesus.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)