The Greek that is typically translated in English as “sign” is translated in Huehuetla Tepehua as “thing to be marveled at” (source: Larson 1889, p. 279) and in Mairasi as “big work” (source: Enggavoter 2004).


The Greek that is typically transliterated in English as “Satan” is transliterated in Kipsigis as “Setani.” This is interesting because it is not only a transliteration that approximates the Greek sound but it is also an existing Kipsigis word with the meaning of “ugly” and “sneaking.” (Source: Earl Anderson in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 85ff. )

In Morelos Nahuatl it is translated as “envious one”. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)


The Greek that is often translated as “wonder” into English is different from the term that is translated as “miracle” (see miracle) since it “usually involves some unusual phenomena in nature which are a portent of dire woe or extraordinary blessing.” In Huichol these are “awe-inspiring things,” in Yucateco they are “things which show what is coming,” and in Eastern Highland Otomi the expression must be cast into the form of a verb phrase “they will amaze the people.”

complete verse (2 Thessalonians 2:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Thessalonians 2:9:

  • Uma: “As for that evil person, he will appear with big power from the King of Evil, and he will do all kinds of surprising signs that deceive [others].” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This person who opposes God will come out/appear with power from the leader of demons. He will do all kinds of powerful works/deeds and show signs and miracles/wonder-causing deeds to deceive the people.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “When that greatest transgressor is revealed in the future, he will use the power of Satan and he will show his power by means of all kinds of false signs and miracles.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But before his defeat, since the power of Satanas will be in him, he will show all kinds of miracles and amazing signs” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “This Epitome of Rebelliousness who will appear on the scene, his knowledge/skill (usually occult) is very big, knowledge coming from Satanas. He will keep doing very many amazing things, which will testify to his ability, that being with what he will fool people.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When the evil person does appear, the devil will give him power. It will be seen that he has power to do miracles which no one can do. By this he will deceive.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)