Pantokrator

The Ancient Greek Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible used the word pantokrator (παντοκράτωρ) or “Ruler of All” as a translation of the second part of the Hebrew term YHWH Tz’vaót (יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת) or “Lord of hosts” (see here) and occasionally ʼĒl Šadạy (אֵל שַׁדַּי‎), translated in English commonly as “God Almighty.” In the deuterocanonical/apocryphal books, pantokrator might have also been used in the original writing. The New Testament uses it one time in the writings of Paul (2 Cor. 6:18) and several times in the book of Revelation (see esp. Rev. 1:8).

One of the most influential icon styles of the Orthodox church has developed from this concept: Christ Pantocrator. In this icon style, Christ is looking straight at the viewer, his right hand is typically spelling a short form of “Jesus Christ” (see the bottom of the entry on Jesus and icons for an explanation), and his left hand holds a New Testament. His head is often surrounded by a halo.

The earliest preserved icon is found in the Greek Orthodox Saint Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai from the 6th century:

In order to express the two natures of Christ, the two sides of the face are not symmetrical. The right side might represent the qualities of his divinity, while his left side represents human nature. (Source )

Orthodox icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

See also LORD of hosts.

enemy / foe

The Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin that is translated as “enemy” or “foe” in English is translated in the Hausa Common Language Bible as “friends of front,” i.e., the person standing opposite you in a battle. (Source: Andy Warren-Rothlin)

In North Alaskan Inupiatun it is translated with a term that implies that it’s not just someone who hates you, but one who wants to do you harm (Source: Robert Bascom), in Tarok as ukpa ìkum or “companion in war/fighting,” and in Ikwere as nye irno m or “person who hates me” (source for this and one above: Chuck and Karen Tessaro in this newsletter ).

Translation commentary on 2 Maccabees 8:24

Both Revised Standard Version and Good News Bible have a paragraph break here, which is appropriate.

With the Almighty as their ally, they slew more than nine thousand of the enemy may be rendered “God Almighty [or, All-Powerful] helped our soldiers fight, and they killed more than 9,000 of the enemy” (similarly Good News Bible). For the Almighty, see 2Macc 3.22.

And wounded and disabled most of Nicanor’s army: Good News Bible combines wounded and disabled into “wounded,” but the two words are different. A soldier can be wounded without being put out of action, that is, disabled. The Greek word for disabled refers to having a leg or arm disabled. This clause may be rendered “They wounded or even crippled [or, disabled] most of Nicanor’s soldiers.”

And forced them all to flee: We can assume that the fleeing soldiers did not include most of those who were wounded or crippled, so this clause is an overstatement. To make it clearer we may say “and they forced the rest of them to flee [or, run away].”

Here is an alternative model for this verse:

• Almighty God helped our soldiers fight, and they killed more than 9,000 of Nicanor’s soldiers. They wounded or even crippled most of the others, and forced the rest of them to flee.

Quoted with permission from Bullard, Roger A. and Hatton, Howard A. A Handbook on 1-2 Maccabees. (UBS Helps for Translators). New York: UBS, 2011. For this and other handbooks for translators see here.