The Ancient Greek Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible used the word pantokrator (παντοκράτωρ) or “Ruler of All” as a translation of the second part of the Hebrew term YHWH Tz’vaót (יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת) or “Lord of hosts” (see here) and occasionally ʼĒl Šadạy (אֵל שַׁדַּי‎), translated in English commonly as “God Almighty.” In the deuterocanonical/apocryphal books, pantokrator might have also been used in the original writing. The New Testament uses it one time in the writings of Paul (2 Cor. 6:18) and several times in the book of Revelation (see esp. Rev. 1:8).

One of the most influential icon styles of the Orthodox church has developed from this concept: Christ Pantocrator. In this icon style, Christ is looking straight at the viewer, his right hand is typically spelling a short form of “Jesus Christ” (see the bottom of the entry on Jesus and icons for an explanation), and his left hand holds a New Testament. His head is often surrounded by a halo.

The earliest preserved icon is found in the Greek Orthodox Saint Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai from the 6th century:

In order to express the two natures of Christ, the two sides of the face are not symmetrical. The right side might represent the qualities of his divinity, while his left side represents human nature. (Source )

Orthodox icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

See also LORD of hosts.


The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “buy,” “acquire,” or “purchase” in English is translated in Noongar as bangal-barranga or “get-barter.” Note that “sell” is translated as wort-bangal or “away-barter.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)

See also sell and buying / selling.

Translation commentary on 2 Maccabees 8:11

And he immediately sent to the cities on the seacoast, inviting them to buy Jewish slaves and promising to hand over ninety slaves for a talent: The connector And is better rendered “So” (Good News Bible). This action is the result of what Nicanor did in the previous verse. He immediately sent means that Nicanor quickly sent a message about Jewish slaves that were to be available soon. The cities on the seacoast were hostile to the Jews. Inviting them to buy Jewish slaves may be rendered “informing them that he would be selling Jewish slaves.” Ninety slaves for a talent means that each slave would cost less than one pound of silver (so Good News Bible). For languages that use kilograms, this phrase may be rendered “three slaves for one kilogram of silver.” Good News Bible provides a helpful model for the first half of this verse. It may also be rendered “So he promptly sent a message to the towns [or, to the people of the towns] along the coast, informing them that he would be selling Jewish slaves, three for one kilogram of silver.”

Not expecting the judgment from the Almighty that was about to overtake him: For the Almighty, see the comments on 2Macc 3.22. This last part of the verse may be expressed as a separate sentence by saying “Nicanor did not know [or, expect] it, but God Almighty [or, the All-Powerful God] was going to punish him severely” or “He [or, Nicanor] was unaware that Almighty God was going to punish him severely.”

Quoted with permission from Bullard, Roger A. and Hatton, Howard A. A Handbook on 1-2 Maccabees. (UBS Helps for Translators). New York: UBS, 2011. For this and other handbooks for translators see here.