The Greek that is rendered in English as “conscience” is translated into Aari as “our thoughts speak to us,” in Nuer it is “the knowledge of their heart” (source: Jan Sterk), in Cheke Holo “to know what is straight and what is wrong” (source: Carl Gross), in Chokwe “law of the heart” (source D.B. Long in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 135ff.), in Toraja-Sa’dan penaa ma’pakilala or “the admonishing within” (source: H. van der Veen in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 21 ff.), in Yatzachi Zapotec as “head-hearts,” and in Tzeltal as “hearts” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

In Warao it is translated with obojona, a term that “includes the concepts of consciousness, will, attitude, attention and a few other miscellaneous notions” (source: Henry Osborn in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 74ff.). See other occurrences of Obojona in the Warao New Testament.

See also conscience seared and perfect conscience / clear conscience, clear conscience towards God and all people, and brothers, up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God.


The term that is translated as “hypocrisy” in English versions is translated with a term in Oxchuc Tzeltal that means “two hearts,” in Central Pame “two mouths” (source: Nida 1952, p. 150), and in San Miguel El Grande Mixtec “having two heads” (source: Nida 1947, p. 150).

Kituba uses a specialized idiom for “hypocrisy”: “eye under leaf.” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel)

See also hypocrite.

conscience seared

“It took us a while to find the right way to talk about ‘conscience’ in Uripiv. Here to say their ‘conscience are seared,’ we wrote: ‘They no longer feel anything sharp in their insides when they do bad.'” (Ross McKerras quoted on p. 118)

See also conscience.

complete verse (1 Timothy 4:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 4:2:

  • Uma: “That teaching is delivered by people who lie, their words are one-thing, their character is another [lit., one-thing]. Their hearts are dark, they no longer know to be ashamed when they do evil deeds.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “These their teachings are spread by the lying religious-teachers. These deeds of theirs do not cause their thinking/mind/conscience to be troubled because they are used already to lying.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “by means of the lies of people who say they are believers and whose breaths are not made painful by their own evil deeds.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “This teaching, that’s what hypocritical (lit. pretend good) and habitually-lying people are teaching whose consciences (loan konsensia) are already ruined as if burned with a red-hot piece-of-iron.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Those who teach these lies which were put in their minds by the evil-ones/spirits, they are liars. Their belief is only superficial (lit. on the beak). Well since for a long time now they have disregarded the supervision by the Espiritu Santo and they deliberately don’t do what they know in their mind/inner-being to be good, therefore now, their minds regard no matter what evil as being good.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “These teachers will speak lies to deceive the people. They will know very well that it is not right what they are doing, but they will not feel sad about what they do.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)